TOPIC 4: INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM – HISTORY FORM TWO
When African societies were practicing communalism, slavery and feudalism as the mode of production during the 18th century; elsewhere in the world, Europe in particularly was step further practicing capitalism as the mode of production in most of their societies.
MEANING OF CAPITALISM
Capitalism refer to the political and socio-economic system based on the private ownership of the major means of production Or
Was the economic system or relation of production in which the means of production are in the hands of a few individuals and operated for profit.. In Europe capitalism developed after the decline of Feudalism
PHASES OF CAPITALISM
Capitalism underwent different stages before reaching its maturity. These stages included: Commercial or Mercantile capitalism, Industrial capitalism or Competitive capitalism and Monopoly Capitalism or Imperialism.
1. MERCANTILE OR COMMERCIAL CAPITALISM
This was the first phase of capitalism in which trade was the main economic activity that produced profit. It took place between the 16th and the 18th centuries. Where by more traders come to Africa from England, Belgium, Netherlands and Portugal
FEATURES OF MERCANTILISM
1. Existence of classes of people i.e the rich class and poor class
2. Trade was the main economic activity which produced profit
3. The rural areas was the source of all source of all items of trade such as minerals, crops and animal products
4. Agriculture and mining were the primary sources of products and items of value
5. Money was the medium of exchange
6. Countries and rulers fought for the control of trade, trade routes and resources such as gold and silver. Example the Anglo-Dutch Wars, and the Franco-Dutch Wars.
2. INDUSTRIAL OR COMPETATIVE CAPITALISM
Industrial capitalism was the second phase of capitalism in which industries/ factories became the dominant factor in the production of goods.
Or was the stage were by Machines began to be used for production in industries.
Few people owned the means of production these were known as Bourgeoisie where the wage-earning class known as proletariats. This stage took place around 1750s and 1870s
FEATURES OF INDUSTIAL CAPITALISM
1. Existence of classes of people: the lower, middle class and the upper class
2. Industrial production was the main economic activity which produced profit
3. Machines replaced humans in production
4. Existence of competitions in production of goods.
5. The rise of large scale industries which brought about industrial revolution
6. Existence of free trade system with minimal government tariff policies
Industrial capitalism associated with the industrial revolution which took place between the 1740s and 1850s in Europe.
British industrialized in 1750 however, in the 19th century, other European countries such as France, Belgium, German, and Italy also industrialized
Qn: What is industrial revolution?
Industrial revolution was the changes in the methods of production which entailed application of scientific procedures of production and markets
3. MONOPOLY CAPITALISM OR IMPERIALISM
This was the third phase in the development of capitalism where by large companies dominated the production of commodities and markets. It took place 1870’s
FEATURES OF MONOPOLY CAPITALISM
1. There was large scale production
2. Centralization of capital
3. Lack of open competition
4. Export of capital as opposed export of commodities
5. Rushing to colonies to satisfy economic needs such as market, cheap labour, raw materials and areas for investments
FACTORS THAT STIMULATED INDUSTRIALIZATION IN EUROPE
1. Availability of coal and iron in large amounts in Europe. Coal used as fuels for industrial machines and engines while iron used to build factories, bridges and railways.
2. The agrarian revolution or improvement of agriculture. Agrarian revolution encouraged the proper use of land, and scientific farming which led to high production of raw materials for the industries.
3. Advancement in science and technology. For example the spinning machines replaced the hand loom machines for weaving clothes.
4. Development of trade activities. European traders went as Far East and Asia in order to trade. The accumulated wealth from trade was invested in industries in Europe.
5. Availability of banks and insurance. Banks provided loans to the traders while insurance used insure trader’s factories and properties
6. Political stability in Europe. Presence of peace environment in Europe made people to engage in various activities including industrial activities
7. The large European population in Europe. The population insured availability of skilled and unskilled labourers to work in industries and farms, also being the market for the goods produced.
8. Improved transport system in Europe. Availability of good roads, railways and harbours facilitated transportation of raw materials, goods and people.
9. The support from the European government. They gave tax relief and subside to industries and encouraged industrial research and training.
DEMANDS INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
There were different demands that made occurrence of industrial capitalism, these were;
1. Areas to invest capital.
Due to unreliable markets and high concentration of capital in Europe, profit marginalization occurred. As solution new areas for investment were needed among other areas, Africa provided the best areas for investment of such capital.
In Africa the tropical crops could do better compared to other countries it was also a good source for non agricultural raw materials such as minerals and forest products.
2. Demands for Market.
Due to the investment of capital in production, industrial goods flooded the European markets. Overproduction and under consumption became a critical problem among the industrial capitalists hence they were forced to look for markets outside Europe
3. Demands for raw materials.
The increasing production due to expansion of industries needed large quantities of raw materials supply. These materials included cotton, coffee, tea, iron ore, palm oil, sisal, sugar cane, tobacco and rubber.
The available raw materials could not meet the demand needed by industries. This resulted into the search and control of the sources of raw materials.
4. Demand of Cheap labourers.
Due to labour consciousness caused by working class in Europe and Britain in particular, the need to search for cheap labour becomes important. This was a measure taken to compete in production for profit maximization.
5. Area for settlement surplus labourers.
Also they demanded the area for surplus unemployed personal population in their countries.
IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM IN AFRICA
1. It led to the collapse of African hand crafts and mining industries
2. It increased the influx of European missionaries, traders and explores in Africa
3. It led to the scramble of the African continent among the European powers when the agents of industrial capitalism relayed information to Europe about the wealth of the African continent.
4. It led to partition of the African continent and eventually colonization of Africa by the European powers
5. It led to adoption of European culture into African societies such as drinks, clothes, beads and other luxurious goods
6. It enforced the abolition of slave trade. This ensured that Africans remained in the continent and produced for Europeans
7. It led to the rise of legitimate trade in Africa which emphasized the production of cash crops as raw materials, after the abolition of slave trade in the 19th century.
8. Un equal exchange occurred because European traders exchanged less valuable goods with African higher valuable goods.
9. Introduction of cash crop economy began in many African societies under the phase of industrial capitalism. African produced cotton and palm oil as opposed to the farming of food crops.
10. It paved for the colonization of the African continent in the late 19th century
Industrial capitalism benefited European while the Africans became the losers. They lost precious raw materials and their societies were turned to dumping areas of foreign manufactured goods
AGENTS OF COLONIALISM/INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM
Agents of industrial capitalism were the Europeans who penetrated in Africa to prepare the Africans to meet the industrial demands such as raw material, markets for manufactured goods, areas for investments and cheap labourers in the 19th century.
There were about three groups of agents of industrial capitalism in Africa namely:
Explorers were the first group of forerunners which penetrated to Africa and explored (searched for) various potential information about Africa and revealed them to their governments. They came in Africa around the 19th century.
The prominent explores were:
In East Africa
John Speke, Richard Burton, James Grant, Samuel Baker, Henry M. Stanley, Ludwig Krapf and Dr. Livingstone.
In Central Africa
Livingstone and later Henry M. Stanley, also Pierre de Brazza.
In West Africa
Richard Lander, Henrich Barth’s, Mungo Park, Hugh Clapperton, and Rene’s Caillie.
Explorers wrote reports, books and speeches which campaigned for the colonization of Africa.
ROLES OF EXPLORERS IN THE COLONIZATION OF AFRICA
1. They were to explore (search) potential areas in African.
For example the availability of resources like good climatic conditions, topography, lakes, soil fertility, big rivers and animal species in Africa
For example Clapperton reported about the river Niger to the British government while Speke reported about the potentiality of Lake Victoria and named it Victoria to honor Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
2. They provided important information about the nature of African societies
They reported about the hostility, calmness and hospitality of the African people. This information played a central role for the European colonialists during the decision making process regarding the colonization of Africa.
3. They provided messages to their government about the existing evils of slave trade and the areas where slave trade was still conducted
Dr. Livingstone’s third journey through Tanganyika and Lake Regions of central Africa was targeted for that as a result he informed the English that the Yao’s land was still characterized by slave raids and the effects of slave trade such as sufferings, insecurity.
4. They appealed their home government to come to occupy the areas In Arica.
For example in 1856, Dr. Livingstone proposed establishment of British colony in the heart of Central Africa and Britain responded by colonizing Central Africa
5. They signed bogus treaties friendly with African local rulers that provided the basis of colonization of Africa
6. They learnt native languages in order to cope with their intended mission
7. They opened up investment opportunities by preparing the Africans psychologically to accept and appreciate the white men’s economy.
Missionaries were the second group of fore runner’s who came to Africa with the mission of spreading the Christianity and Western civilizations.
Missionaries came to Africa under the support of their missionary societies in Europe.
Examples of such societies in Africa include:
1. Christian Missionaries Society (C.M.S) of England worked in Buganda, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Lagos and Yoruba
2. Universities Mission to Central Africa (UMCA).
3. Holy Ghost Fathers
4. London Missionary Society (L.M.S)
5. French White Fathers(Catholic)
6. Church of Scotland Mission worked in Calabar in Nigeria
7. Basel Mission worked in Fante
The prominent Missionaries were:
Ludwig Krapf, Johannes Rebman, Cardinal Charles Lavigerie and John Smith Moffat
ROLE PLAYED BY MISSIONARIES IN THE COLONISATION OF AFRICA
1. They acted as interpreters and propagandists at the time of treaty making by learning tradition languages: John Moffat stayed among the Ndebele for about 30 years serving the British South African company (B.S.A.C) for treaty making between the companies (B.S.A.C) and King Lobengula.
2. They acted as advisors to African chiefs: The British missionaries of the church missionary society convinced Kabaka to accept protectorate.
3. They introduced Western civilization to the interior through education and schools: This aimed to prepare people of low ranks to serving colonial masters at the time of colonization.
4. Missionaries softened the minds and the hearts of Africans: Their activities were influenced by European imperialists’ interests by preaching and emphasizing the spiritual beliefs such as “give to God what which belongs to God,” and “give to Ceaser what belongs to Ceaser”. In the long run this preaching weakened African opposition and shaped the regions for future colonial administration.
5. They converted Africans to Christianity: They were easily employed as puppets to extend colonial rule. Typical examples are the converts of Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Ghana who were able to protect the British economic interests and paved the way for future colonization by the British.
6. Missionaries reduced resistance among African societies: This was done by converting some societies and preaching obedience to administrators.
7. They helped in the abolition of slave trade: They planned for successful Christianization of the freed slaves as they preached the word of God. They wanted to create the conducive and peaceful environment for the development of legitimate trade which was exploitative in nature and was after capitalist’s interests.
8. They provided western education through building of missionaries schools and taught western education to Africans. They taught reading, writing and counting skills. Example of schools were like Kigurunyembe T.T.C, Pugu secondary school, St. Mary’s Tabora, Minaki secondary school etc The people who adopted this education adopted European culture by speaking foreign languages like English, French, Portuguese or Germany
9. They signed bogus treaties with the African rulers example John Moffat signed a treaty with King Lobengula over Ndebele land
Traders were the last people (agents) who came to Africa with a mission of trading with Africans. They brought manufactured goods such as clothes and guns to exchange them for gold, ivory, cotton and animal hides in many areas. When they come they formed trading companies in many parts of Africa.
The prominent traders in Africa were:
- William Mackinnon
- James Stevenson
- Harry Johnston and
- Carl Peter
ROLE PLAYED BY TRADERS IN THE COLONISATION OF AFRICA
1. They opened a new an exploitative system: Therefore, Africa became the target for European interests. This resulted in stiff rivalries and competition among European industrial nations.
2. Introduction of circuit through legitimate trade: This involved the importation of European manufactured goods. Thus, the chain of dependence was created and the African local industries and the arts were destroyed.
3. Traders exposed Africa to the world capitalist system of economy: The use of currency, banking and credit facilities began to be witnessed by Africans.
This resulted into exploitation of African resources. The fair and quick turns obtained by traders attracted European colonialists to come into Africa.
4. They opened communication systems such as roads: This laid the foundation for future colonial infrastructure. For example, the road from Lake Nyasa to Tanganyika known as Livingstone road was opened by traders and was used during the colonial administration.
5. They carried out trade in Africa. European traders brought manufactured goods from their countries to Africa. Africans relied on importing goods like clothes from Europe instead of weaving their own cloth, hence created dependency of Africans to Europeans.
6. Traders signed treaties with local leaders; the aims were to prepare the areas to be ready for the white rule. One example was a treaty signed between Harry Johnston and chief Mandara of Uchagga in 1884 to control thirteen square kilometers of land in Kilimanjaro.
Also Dr. Carl Peters of the society for German colonization signed treaties with a number of chief between Pangani and Rufiji. These treaties were later used by the German government to control Tanganyika.
COMPANIES AND ASSOCIATIONS
Companies and association were the European traders or merchants who came in Africa to make trade with Africans on behalf of their home governments. They received finance from their home government so as to operate effectively and differently in those areas.
In the abolition of slave trade, merchant companies became increasingly involved in the interior of Africa. The major aim of these companies was to establish the so called “legitimate trade”.
This was trade in commodities and other resources that industrial capitalist required as raw materials or as food for the urban working classes. The legitimate trade did not involve the selling and buying human
EXAMPLES OF THE ASSOCIATION INCLUDED
The Royal British Geographical society, financed by John Speke to explore the river Nile.
African Association of British, which in 1788 financed Mungo Park. Its major aim was to explore and identify the areas suitable for agriculture, which could produce enough materials for export.
In East Africa
The Imperial British East African Company (B.E.A.C) formed by William Mackinnon in 1887in Zanzibar it was also known as The British African Association. In 1888 the Association was given a charter to control Kenya and Uganda.
Germany East African Company ( E.A.C) which was formed by Dr. Carl Peters in Tanganyika in 1884 and signed trades with many chiefs such as Chief Mangung’o of Msowero apart from doing trade in Tanganyika by 1885
In West Africa
The Sierra Leone Company which was established at Freetown harbor
The Royal Niger Company (N.C) formed in 1884 previously known as The United Company which was headed by George Goldie established a trading centre along the Niger River in Nigeria.
In Central and South Africa
British South African Company (S.A.C) formed in 1870’s by Cecil Rhodes to work in Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa.
The African international Association was formed by King Leopard II in 1876. It traded in Congo basin
The Livingstone Central African Company (C.A.C) formed by a Scottish trader James Steven form Scotland to trade in ivory and other local products in 1878.
ROLE PLAYED BY COMPANIES AND ASSOCIATION IN THE COLONISATION OF AFRICA.
1. Monopolization and exploitation of African resources: These resources were highly needed by the European capitalists in their industries. In all parts of Africa Company played a crucial role of collecting raw materials and carried out trade activities.
2. Elimination of local middlemen and creation of custom duties and tariffs: These were carried out by the companies which attracted the imperialist’s powers to control Africa.
3. The companies encouraged their home government to colonize Africa: For example; the Royal Niger Company encouraged the British to colonize Nigeria after gaining the control of the different trading areas in the region.
4. Signing treaties: The Company played an important role of signing different treaties with African local chiefs. These treaties helped imperial powers to claim and justify the colonization of particular territories, especially during the Berlin Conference
5. Creation of infrastructure: These included commercial centers, administrative headquarters, roads, railways and waterways.
They were allocated in those areas where they operated where by later on were used by the imperial powers to transport administrators to colonize and impose laws on the land.
6. The companies laid foundations for their home government to colonize African: They suppressed African resistance through a police force used to maintain peace, order and stability within the region.
For example in East Africa, the German East African Company recruited Swahili, Sudanese and Buganda soldier to counter the coastal Arab resistance of 1888-1889.
7. They provided important information about economic potentiality of African areas: Africa was exposed to the imperial powers which aimed to colonize the continent.
8. The companies provided rudimentary administration in areas of their operation: Some company leaders such as Sir. George Turban Goldie of the Royal Niger Company, Harry Johnston, the representative of Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company, attended the Berlin Conference of 1884-188 5.
9. The company played an important role of marking of the administrative boundaries: Which were later identified as boundaries of the European spheres of influence.
They prevented any other rival European imperial power from taking their territories. This was evidenced in East Africa where the German East Africa Company marked the area of the German in the Anglo-German rivalry and achieved the 1886 agreement.
While in South Africa the British South Africa Company managed to map the claims of Britain, thus preventing the Portuguese from interfering in the British sphere of influence.
10. Furthermore, the companies used their security organs to abolish slave trade in the areas of their influence. They introduced legitimate trade in Africa.
ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE
Abolition of slave trade was a campaign to prohibit the trade of buying and selling human being as a commodity OR Was the act of stopping the use of human beings as commodities.
Abolition of slave trade took place around 18th century. By the beginning of 19th century British government was the first country to abolish slave trade by 1807 and in 1833 Followed by other countries like:
- France and Holland in 1814 and 1817
- Spain in 1847
- S.A in 1865
- Brazil in 1888
Total abolition of slave trade took place during the colonial period.
REASONS FOR THE ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE
1. Humanitarians Ideas and Constructive Arguments on slave Trade. These people argued that slave trade was evil and inhuman and against God who had created men to treat themselves equally to each other.
Hence must be stopped. Examples of these persons were William Wilberforce, Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson and James Stephen. The abolition of Slave Trade Society was formed in 1787. In 1823, it became the British Anti-Slavery Society.
2. Role of literature and philosophy during the 18th They put their emphasis on equality, brotherhood and liberty of man using mass media, such as magazines, newspapers, pamphlets etc.
For example the Philosopher Jean Jaques Rouseau and the economics Adam Smith wrote the books to show the slave trade was the profitless trade.
3. Religious reasons. Religious people such as Anglican preached and condemned slave trade as opposed to laws of God and humanity.
They called slavery and slave trade ‘sinful’. John Wisley was one of these religious anti-slavery movements.
4. The French revolution of 1789. The revolution was carried out by the merchants and peasants against the government of King Louis XVI.
The revolution emphasized the right of liberty, equality and fraternity among the people of France. The revolution inspired the people in the world to campaign against slave trade
5. Constant slave revolts. Protest and laziness in work also was an alarming force for the abolition of slave trade.
1. British industrial Revolution. After discovery of industries in 1750’s machines replaced human labour or slave labour. Hence British urged its abolition because they wanted Africans to be left in Africa to produce raw materials such as palm oil, groundnuts, and buy manufactured goods from Europe
2. American independence. When America got independence in 1776 from the British she declared that slave trade and slavery was illegal in America. So the European merchants could not import slaves into America, the only way was to abolish it.
3. The sugar competition between the British and the French. The British produced sugar in islands such as Cuba and Jamaica and sold at higher price. The French produced sugar at Mauritius and Reunion using slave labour and sold it cheaply.
The British could not sell its sugar because the customers preferred the French sugar which was sold at low price contrary to British who sold it at a higher price. The British lost the market and decided to abolish slave trade it in order to make French to rise up the price.
4. The demands for raw materials and markets. European powers saw Africans could be used to produce raw materials in their mother countries instead of working as profitless workers. Yet, Britain and other power needed market to sell their manufactured goods. Therefore it was better to treaty Africans as customers rather than as commodities.
THE TACTICS USED DURING THE ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE
Several tactics were used in the abolition of slave trade in Africa. They Include:-
1. Enactment of slave trade prohibition acts by the British parliament to ban the buying and selling of slaves in its empire. Later, more laws were enacted which declared slave trade an illegal business
2. The use of British naval patrols ships on the Atlantic and India oceans to block all slave ships and escort them back to Africa to release slaves
3. Creating African informers. The British created some Africans informers and entrusted them with a task of relaying information about slave trade activities and movement of slave ships.
4. The British gave incentives to slave dealers to stop the participating in slave trade.
5. They established a legal court for slave dealers in Sierra Leone to sue those who were caught participating in slave trade in Africa.
6. Conducting anti-slave trade rallies, demonstrations and boycotting in European countries to raise awareness to the public and discourage slave traders from continuing their actions.
7. Intellectuals and writers used books, newspaper and magazines to condemn slave trade and slavery
8. Signing treaties with local rulers who participated in slave trade.
This tactic was applied only in East Africa where the British signed treaties with the Sultan of Zanzibar as follows: Hence the following were the stages:
1. The Moresby Treaty of 1822.
This was signed between Captain Moresby and the Sultan of Oman, Seyyid Said. The treaty prohibited the Sultan from selling slaves outside his territories. Thus, the Sultan was not allowed to sell slaves to India, Arabia, Persia and French- Islands of Reunion and Mauritius
2. Hamerton Treaty of 1845.
This was signed between Colonel Hamerton and sultan Seyyid Said. It forbade the shipping of slaves outside the sultan’s East Africa territories i.e. beyond to the North than Brava on Mogadishu coast. It aimed to stop the supply of slaves to the Red Sea and Arabian ports.
3. The Freire Treaty of 1873.
The treaty was signed between Sultan Barghash and the British in 1873. The British firstly sent Bartle Frere to persuade Barghash to end slave trade but he refused.
Later the British sent Sir John Kirk who succeeded in persuading Barghash to stop slave trade. In 1872, sir. Bartle Frere persuaded sultan Barghash to stop slave trade but not much was achieved.
On 5th march 1873, the sultan passed a decree prohibiting the export of slaves from mainland and closed of slave market at Zanzibar. Zanzibar slave market was to be closed within 24 hours
In 1876, sultan decreed that no slaves were to be transported overland.
In 1897, slaves were left to claim their freedom themselves.
In 1907, slavery was abolished entirely in Zanzibar and Pemba.
In 1927, slavery ended in Tanganyika when British took over from Germany after the First World War.
THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE
1. Rise of legitimate trade to as a replacement of slave trade. Merchants from Europe no exchanged manufactured goods from Europe such as clothes and guns for raw materials like palm oil, gold, ivory, rubber, groundnuts and cotton.
2. Rise of European trading companies. The trade companies were established in order to participate in the trade of buying raw materials from Africa in exchange for European goods.
1. Spread of Christianity and education to African societies.
2. Intensification of European activities in Africa. It accelerated the coming of European missionaries to East Africa who emphasized peace and obedience thus the future European colonization of East Africa.
1. Loss of independence, the suppression of slave trade led to loss of independence that is to say, legitimate trade which provided equally profitable business to both European and African traders. Many ship owners diverted their ships from transporting slaves to transporting raw cotton and raw sugar from Brazil and America.
2. Disintegration of the Sultan Empire: This is because it loosened the economic and political control which the sultan had over the east African nations. His empire in East Africa therefore began to crumble. This gave opportunity to other ambitious leaders like Tippu-Tip to create independent state in Manyema, where he began selling his ivory and slaves to the Belgians in Zaire.
3. Closing of slave trade markets, for example Zanzibar in 1873 following the Frere treaty signed between sultan Barghash and Bantle Frere.
4. African societies regained their respect and strength as they were no longer sold off as commodities.
5. Fall of states such as Dahomey, Benin and Oyo in the forest region because of the abolition of slave trade
6. The founding of new states as areas for settling ex-slaves. Sierra Leone and Liberia were founded by British and America abolitionists in 1787 and 1821.
Hence British took over Sierra Leone in 1807 as the base for the abolition of slave trade and resettlement of ex-slaves.
Liberia was given independence by the American colonization society in 1847 as the home for freed slaves.
Generally, abolition of slave trade was a catalyst to the partition of East Africa whereby Britain took over Kenya, Zanzibar and Uganda while Germany took over Tanganyika.
DELAY IN THE ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE
The abolition of slave trade started in the 18th century but did not succeed until late in 1890’s when most slaves were freed from slavery.
REASONS FOR THE DELAY OF THE ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE
1. British was the only industrial power which led the campaigns against slave trade. Other powers like French did not actively take part in the abolition
2. Harsh climatic condition in Africa. Many of the abolitionists found the weather conditions in Africa difficult to endure and many died of tropical diseases such as malaria and small pox.
3. Resistance from the African slave trade dealers. For example, Ntemi Mirambo of Tabora and Kabaka Mutesa of Buganda opposed the abolition of slave trade.
4. Shortage of man powers who participated in the abolitionist campaign
5. The treaties signed in East Africa only concentrated at the coast which were destinations of the slave leaving slave trade to continue in the interior
6. Britain had too few ships for the tasks of patrolling the whole of coast of Eastern and Western Africa against loading and transport of slaves
7. The slave merchants were more familiar with the coastal inlets more than the British naval patrols. They escaped from the abolitionists and supplied more slaves
8. Inadequate funds to facilitate slave patrol in the sea.
BRITISH OCCUPATION OF SOUTH AFRICA VIA THE CAPE
BRITISH AT THE CAPE
Britain took control of South Africa in 1795 when they attacked and defeated the Boers at the Cape. Sir. Francis Drake became the first British man to round the Cape of Good Hope.
He was very impressed by the table mountain in the bay of modern- day Cape Town. There was a peace treaty between the Dutch and the British in 1802 and the Cape was given back to the Dutch in 1803.
In 1806 the British decided to re-occupy the Cape by defeating the Dutch. Since then the Cape was under the British administration.
THE MOTIVES FOR THE BRITISH INTERESTS AT THE CAPE
1. They wanted to use the Cape as the base to protect their ships on the sea route to India
2. They settled at the Cape in order to get areas for raw materials, markets and investments for their home industries
3. The wanted to have effective control of trade routes which headed to India and Britain across the Atlantic Oceans
4. The Cape easily linked Britain and Western Europe across the Atlantic more than areas in the eastern region of South Africa
5. The Cape was a base which British could protect themselves against enemies that might attack them from the sea.
TACTICS USED BY BRITISH TO OCCUPY THE CAPE
1. Introduction of land legislation system. They aimed at discouraging pastoralism among Boers and to encourage sedentary farming since the policy limited the size of an individual’s land.
The Dutch thought that the British introduced the land law to take land from the Boers and redistribute it to the landless Khoikhoi so they opposed the land law.
2. Abolition of slave trade and slavery in 1807. The British government abolished slave trade in all their colonies and offered compensation for slaves but the money was only paid in London as a result the majority did not get their compensation.
However, freeing slaves endangered the economic survival of the Boers as they depended much on slave labour.
3. Imposition of the English language as the as the language of administering the law and justice and the medium of instruction in schools in 1822. Hence English language replaced the Dutch as he official language.
4. Abolition of internal trade restriction imposed by the Dutch company officials on the farmers and other settlers at the cape. This created more trade opportunities as they could now trade freely without strictly control from the administration.
5. Introduction of the pass in 1809 to reduce the exploitation of African labour as the system required African workers to carry passbooks which indicated their residence and employment,
And those who did not carry them were regarded as criminals. The pass prevented the Africans from moving from district to district or moving into areas occupied by Europeans.
6. Introduction of contract system, through this the Boers were to sign contracts with their workers. In those contracts they were to mention the wages and other fringe benefits that they gave to their workers.
Therefore the Boers regarded the contract system as British interference in the traditional Boer-Africans relationship of master-servant.
7. Introduction of the Black circuit court system in 1811 in order to reduce acts of violence committed by European employers against African employees. The law angered the Boers who considered themselves a superior race and thus natural masters of the Africans.
8. Provision of financial aid to the British settlers by the British government, this encouraged more of its citizens to immigrate to the Cape as a result in 1820 some 300 British settlers arrived in South Africa increasing the total white population by almost 12% within weeks.
9. Military force against the Dutch and the Khoikhoi. The British used weapons to fight the Dutch and the KhoiKhoi at the Cape
EFFECTS OF THE BRITISH ADMINISTRATION AT THE CAPE
1. They abolished slavery introduced by the Boers who were forcing the KhoiKhoi to work as slaves in their farms to produce fruits and vegetables
2. Growth of English culture at the Cape-They imposed English language as the official medium of communication. English had to be spoken by the people including the Dutch
3. Land alienation took place at the Cape. The Khoi Khoi continued to lose their land at the British took it their settlements
4. Introduction of import manufactured goods which changed the consumption patterns of the KhoiKhoi. African industries and handcrafts lost markets
5. Introduction of Circuit courts in order to settle disputes between the Dutch and the KhoiKhoi
6. African reaction against the British began in South Africa. For example, the Anglo-Zulu war took place because ere opposing the British in South Africa.
The settlement of both the Dutch and the British in South Africa was a turning point of African societies. The Africans were discriminated, their land was taken and their political authorities destroyed by the whites.
They could not enjoy their human dignity in their country. In 1806 the British decided to re-occupy the Cape by attacking the Dutch again. From then the Cape went under British administration. South Africa becomes known as the Cape Colony.
THE BOER TREK/MOVEMENT
The Boer trek or the Great Trek was an East-ward and North-ward migration of the Dutch-speaking settlers (Boers) away from British control in the Cape colony to the interior of modern day South Africa.
The trek took place during the 1835 onwards to 1840’s. About six thousand white settler men, women and children trekked from their homes in the eastern districts of the Cape colony. They travelled in organized groups of kin with their cattle and movable properties.
The great trek itself led to the founding of numerous Boer republics, the Natalia republic, the Orange Free State republic and the Transvaal being the most notable.
THE REASONS FOR THE BOER TREK
The Boers left the Cape mostly due to their dissatisfaction with British policies.
1. Need for more land. Boers were farmers and pastoralist ho needed more adequate land for economic activities. They shifted from the Cape in order to search for land to engage in farming and pastoralism
2. Introduction of English as official language at the Cape by British administration. This made Boers to move away from the Cape. Boers did not know English and hated it because it was British culture
3. Abolition of slavery by the British at the Cape in 1834 led the Boers movement northwards. Boers depended on labours
4. Introduction of Circuit courts by the British. Under this courts Khi Khoi were treated equally before the law with the Boers masters. This action humiliated the Boers and eventually they decided to quit the Cape.
5. Segregation attitudes of the Boers. They did not like to mix with the British because of their fears on degeneration of their races. So, they chose to stay away from the British.
6. Misunderstanding between Boers stock farmers and British administration
7. Boers wanted to be outside of the British government authority.
THE EFFECTS OF THE BOER TREK
1. Annexation of African land in Natal, Orange Free States and Transvaal where Boers normally employed brutal forces to take the most fertile land which initially used for the production of crops and animals
2. Boers confiscated the wealth of inhabitants, particularly cattle leaving Africans in poverty
3. Formation of Boer republic in Transvaal, Natal and Orange Free State as a result of movement of Boers from the Cape to the interior South Africa
4. Ngoni migration. Boer Trek led to Ngoni migration from South Africa upwards to other areas of Africa
5. Occurrence of wars such as Anglo- Boer wars of 1880 – 1881 and 1899-1902. The war broke out due to hatred between the Boers and British. The British won all two wars whereby placing South Africa under British rule until 1948
6. Discovery of minerals in the Orange Free States and Transvaal. The discovery of diamond in the Orange Free States and gold in Transvaal led to the mineral revolution which changed South Africa economy
7. Africans became cheap labourers and squatters. They worked in the Boers economic investments under severe discrimination.
8. Boer broke up the unity of South Africans in the Orange Free States, Natal and Transvaal republics being controlled by the Whites.
9. Establishment of apartheid policy in South Africa. They strengthened apartheid in 1948 when National Party which belonged to the Boer population took control of South Africa. Their government carried out systematic discrimination of Africans in education, health, administration and recreation
REVISION QUESTIONS 4
1. Explain the part played by the missionaries, traders and explorers in the colonization process of Africa
2. Examine the factors which favoured the spread of Christianity in East Africa
3. Outline the problems facing missionary activities in East Africa
4. Describe the rise or development of capitalism (the rise of imperialism)
5. How did the discovery of mineral affect the South Africa economy?
6. What were the main causes and results of the Great Trek (Boer Trek) in South Africa?
7. Give reasons for the Anglo-Boer war of 1899-1902?
8. Discuss the causes of the Boer trek and its consequences on the people of South Africa
9. Discuss the main causes and effects of Mfecane war
10. Show impacts for the Anglo-Boer war in South Africa