TOPIC 1 : ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIALISM IN AFRICA – HISTORY FORM THREE
THE CONCEPT OF COLONIALISM
Colonialism refers to the situation whereby one powerful nation extend its influence over the weaker nation politically, economically and ideologically. Colonialism in Africa started from the 19th century.
Colonization of the African continent by the European capitalist power is the stage in the development of capitalism which was contributed by the transformation from commercial/mercantile capitalism through industrial capitalism to monopoly capitalism.
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALISM
1. Mercantile capitalism
Refers the capitalist stage that based on overseas trade. It developed between 1400 and 1750. During this period, Africa exported products of higher value to Europe while Europe exported goods of lower value to Africa. Also it was the time of the development of slave trade.
2. Competitive Capitalism
Refers to the capitalist system that based on industrial production. It developed between 1750s and 1870s. It was also based on free trade. Free trade became necessary in order to expand markets and control of raw materials abroad.
Industrial capitalism based on the need of raw materials, markets, areas for investment, areas for surplus settlements and the need of cheap labour.
3. Monopoly capitalism (imperialism/colonialism)
Refers the highest level in the development of capitalism that based on the control of overseas provinces/areas. It developed between 1870s and 1960s.
Monopoly capitalism characterized by the following features:
i. Concentration and centralization of capital – put capital in hands of few people to maximize profit.
ii. Emergence/development of banks – profit was accumulated through banking system.
iii. Export of capital – the capitalist exported capital instead of products.
iv. The formation of international monopolistic companies – such companies included GEACO, IBEACO and BSACO which divided the world among themselves.
v. Division of the world among the great capitalist powers – the world was divided and archived through the partitioning of Africa.
SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICA
SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
Literally the word “Scramble” means fighting, scuffle or struggling for something between two people or sides.
Scramble for Africa refers to the sudden rush or struggle to acquire different parts in Africa by the European imperialist powers.
Scramble for Africa refers to the struggle or competition among European nations in Africa in order to acquire areas of economic influences.
Scramble for Africa refers to the fighting for colonies or spheres of influence among European imperialist powers in Africa.
The process of scramble for Africa had two major stages which were: –
a) Phase/ stage one (From 1830‘s – 1880’s)
During this stage, the major participants were Britain, France and Belgium. Britain had colonized South Africa since 1795 and Sierra Leone as a colony for the ex-slaves in America since 1810.
France had monopolized Senegal, Gambia and Ivory Coast as the major sources of their industrial development.
Belgium in other hand struggled to monopolize and control Congo River and the basin in Central Africa. This was done under the leadership of King Leopold II.
b) Phase/ stage two (From 1880’s – 1890’s)
This stage was characterized by intervention of the late comers who were Germany and Italy in process of scramble for Africa.
Partition simply means “divide” or “to slice, to divide or to break” something into pieces.”
Partition of Africa refers to the process whereby African continent was divided into pieces among European capitalist nations.
Partition of Africa refers to the process of dividing African continent among European nations who were scrambling each other.
This process of dividing the African continent was done during the Berlin conference of 1884 to 1885.
REASONS FOR SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICA
The scramble for Africa reached its zenith towards the last quarter of 19th century. There are two perspectives/ views or approaches which explain the causes of scramble for Africa.
a) Eurocentric views/ perspectives
b) Afro centric views/ perspectives
A. EUROCENTRIC APPROACH/VIEWS
These were explanations propounded by capitalist scholars in Europe. According to Eurocentric historians, scramble for and partition of Africa was due to the humanitarian reasons.
The reasons for scramble for and partition of Africa:
i. European Nationalism.
This was union of various small European states which were ruled by princes into bigger empires. This unification made their countries to praise their culture and declared a mission to civilize other cultures hence Germany and Italy rushed to scramble for colonies in Africa.
ii. European Balance of Power.
The balance of power was disrupted by Franco-Prussian war of 1870 – 1871. Germany rose to power after defeating France and seizing her two provinces that is Alsace for production of coal and Lorraine for iron. There after France began to scramble for colonies in order to regain its power and compensate for the lost provinces.
iii. Strategic Reasons/ Consideration.
Scramble for and partition of Africa was influenced by protection of commercial interests of the European nations in Africa. Eurocentric Historians claims that, European powers scrambled because they wanted to protect her trade interests in Middle East and Far East or Asia.
iv. National Prestige.
The possession of colonies was considered as a symbol of greatness and respect. For example Germany and Italy struggled for colonies with the aim of acquiring national prestige.
v. Civilization Mission.
European nations claimed that they scrambled in Africa because they wanted to civilize the regrettable Africans. They scrambled because they wanted to remove barbaric culture like: Killing twins, believing in many Gods, Women circumcision, Polygamy etc.
They further claimed that, it was their burden to civilize the Africans through education and religion, hence scramble for Africa.
vi. Superiority Complex.
European nations scrambled for African colonies because they regarded themselves as superior race. They regarded Africans and Asians as an inferior race which was to be controlled or dominated by superior race, this myth forced European to rush in Africa so as to prove their superiority.
vii. Social Darwinism.
Charles Darwin was among the prominent theorists in 19th c in Europe. He proposed a theory “ Struggle for existence and survival of the fittest” which explain the natural selection for organisms.
The European nations used this theory to Scramble for Africa and colonization of Africa, because to have colonies was a sign of fitness.
viii. Humanitarian Factor.
European nations scrambled in Africa because they wanted to abolish slavery and slave trade because it was against human rights.
They claimed that, Africans could not stop this trade and mode of production, therefore they scrambled because each nation wanted to participate in abolishing this evil.
ix. To spread legitimate trade.
The European claimed that they wanted to spread legitimate trade that deals with raw materials, and other natural goods.
B. AFROCENTRIC APPROACH/VIEWS
These are views propounded by African scholars. According to Afrocentric historians, the scramble for and partition of Africa was due to the development of Capitalism especially during the stage of the Industrial revolution ( Development of Industrial production) which took place in Europe.
The Industrial revolution which took place in Europe had a lot of problems (impacts) which faced European nations. In order to solve these problems, they decided to come in Africa, a thing which led to scramble for and partition of Africa.
The following were the impacts (problems) of Industrial revolution which led to Scramble for and partition of Africa according to Afro-centric historians:
i. The need of raw materials (Overproduction).
This was due to the use of machines in production that increased production something which led to the Shortage of raw materials in Europe.
Therefore in order to solve this problem, European nations decided to come in African to find raw materials such as cotton, sisal, coffee, ivory and minerals like Gold, Silver and Diamond. This led to scramble for and partition of Africa.
ii. The need of markets (Under consumption).
After the Industrial revolution, there was failure of the people to purchase the goods produced in industries effectively.
This led to shortage of markets and failure of business to many European nations as a result they decided to come in Africa to search for markets in order to sell their goods. This led to scramble for and partition of African among European nations.
iii. The need of areas for settlements.
After the Industrial revolution there was increase of population in different nations. This was due to many reasons such as availability of plenty of food, improvement of health services and urbanization.
This led to shortage of settlements as houses in towns and cities could not fit the increased population.
Therefore, European nations decided to come in Africa to find areas where they could establish settlements so that to reduce government expenditure. This led to scramble for and partition of Africa.
iv. The need of cheap labour (The rise of working class movements).
At the last quarter of the 19th c there was shortage of workers (Cheap labor) due to the rise of working class movement like Chartism, Luddism, new model trade unions etc.
The rise of working movements was due to payments of low wages by the capitalists, poor working condition and lack of insurance especially in Britain.
Therefore in Europe, it was difficult to get cheap labour who could work in industries and other production areas, as a result Europeans decided to come in Africa to find cheap labor that could help the production of raw materials. This eventually led to the scramble for and partition of Africa
v. The need of areas for investment (Presence of surplus capital).
After industrialization, European nations increased the rate of production, a thing which prompted production of surplus capital (super profit). This led to the demand (shortage) of investment areas in Europe.
European nations demanded opportunities where they could invest their surplus capital, but in Europe, there were no areas to invest. Therefore, they decided to come in Africa where they could invest their surplus capital.
AREAS THAT HAD INTENSIVE SCRAMBLE AND THE REASONS
There were different areas which had intensive scramble by the European powers.
These areas included:
– CONGO (River and Basin)
– Central Africa
– South Africa
– Niger Delta
– East Africa.
Reasons for some areas in Africa to experience more intensive scramble than others are as follows:
i. Fertile land (Soil Fertility).
These areas which seemed to have a fertile land like Zimbabwe and some parts of Kenya like the Kikuyu highlands experienced more intensive scramble than other areas. Also Congo had plenty of fertile soil which supported agricultural activities.
ii. Presence of valuable minerals.
Minerals also made some areas in Africa to experience more intensive scramble than others; for example South Africa where Diamonds and Gold were available in large quantity, also Congo where Gold was available. Those European nations wanted minerals because they used them as raw materials for industrial productions.
iii. Presence of navigable rivers.
European nations scrambled there because they wanted to dominate them so as to simplify transportation. Example Suez Canal and Congo Basin are some areas which experienced more intensive scramble.
For example the Congo Basin was scrambled for by Belgium, Britain, France and Portugal. And Suez Canal was scrambled for by both the British and the French.
iv. Large population (Population pressure).
Those areas which were having large population also experienced more intensive scramble example Congo basin had high population that could help availability of markets for European goods and labourers who could work in European projects.
v. Good climatic condition.
Areas that had good /favorable climate which could enable the European to establish settlement and invest their capital experienced intensive scramble than the other.
For example Egypt and Congo had good climate condition which allowed European settlements and establishment of investment projects especially in all areas around the Nile basin and Congo River respectively.
vi. Strategic reasons.
For example Britain wanted to protect her economic interest in Asia as Britain had earlier colonies in Asia which were India, Burma, Pakistan, Australia and New Zealand. As a result wanted to control Egypt because she wanted to use the Suez Canal to reach her colonies.
vii. Reliable rainfall.
Also the region that had adequate rainfall which supported activities like agriculture experienced intensive scramble.
Therefore every European power wanted these regions so as to develop agriculture in order to produce raw materials. Those areas include East Africa, Congo basin and Nile basin.
viii. Presence of great Lakes.
Areas with great lakes also experienced intensive scramble than the other. The present of great lakes like Lake Victoria, Nyasa and Tanganyika of which they could use these lakes in agricultural activities throughout the year through irrigation method, hence every European nation wanted these areas.
Therefore, the Europeans only scrambled for areas with those characteristics mentioned above. And these areas which were scrambled and eventually partitioned by the Europeans, had economic importance to the European powers.
BERLIN CONFERENCE (NOVEMBER 1884 – FEBRUARY 1885)
Berlin conference refers to the international capitalist conference which was held in Berlin, the capital city of Germany from November 1884 to February 1885 under the Germany chancellor Otto Von Bismarck who was the conference chairman.
The main objective of this conference was to divide the African continent peacefully among the scrambling European powers so as to avoid the outbreak of wars/ fighting
European nations which participated in the Berlin conference were 27 nations including: Belgium, Britain, Italy, Portugal, France, Spain, German etc.
Denmark and USA attended in the conference as observers who were to observe all activities of the conference.
WHY GERMANY MANAGED TO HOLD THE CONFERENCE?
There were several reasons as to why Germany under Otto Von Bismarck managed to hold the conference of all capitalist nations and not any other nations like Britain, France etc.
Germany was able to summon the international conference due to the following: –
a) Military power.
During the last quarter of 19th c Germany dominated Europe in terms of military strength. Germany was powerful militarily therefore other European nations feared her. Failure to attend the conference could end up into military punishment.
b) Economic strength.
German was very powerful economically compared to other European nations by the last quarter of the 19th c. This also influenced Germany to hold the conference.
c) The influence of Bismarck.
Bismarck was a very influential factor for Germany to hold the Berlin Conference. He was very diplomatic and propagandist and therefore the conference in Berlin became inevitable.
d) Enmity between other nations.
This gave Germany an opportunity to summon the conference
e) Participation in scramble.
Germany did not fully participate in the scramble for Africa and therefore was seen by other nations as the only solution for the division of Africa.
REASONS FOR THE BERLIN CONFERENCE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE BERLIN CONFERENCE)
The Berlin conference was hold due to a number of reasons. Some of the reasons for the holding the conference was as follows:
a) To discuss the nature of the scramble for Africa
The Berlin conference was called to discuss the nature of the scramble for Africa so as to avoid conflicts of European over the African territories.
b) To divide Africa.
The conference was summoned in order to discuss on how to divide the continent of Africa into colonies among scrambling European nations.
c) To solve and avoid conflicts.
The conference also aimed at solving the ongoing conflicts between scrambling European nations in Africa and also avoid other conflicts which were likely to occur (To settle European conflicts which occurred before arranging the meeting).
d) To set up boundaries in Africa.
The conference also aimed at setting up boundaries in African colonies so as to avoid interference among European colonial powers.
e) To lay down principles.
The Berlin Conference was also aimed at laying down principles which were to be adhered in the division and colonization of Africa (To settle rules and principles on how Africa should be divided up among the European nations)
f) To solve the problem of industrialization.
The conference was aimed at solving the problem of industrialization in Europe such as shortage of raw materials, markets etc. This was to be done through dividing the continent of Africa into colonies for the industrialized nations in Europe.
PRINCIPLES (AGREENMENTS/RESOLUTIONS) OF BERLIN CONFERENCE
The Berlin conference in order to divide and colonize Africa, laid down some principles to be adhered by all colonial powers. These were: –
i. Abolition of slave trade and slavery in Africa
Every nation after being given an area (colony) in Africa was told to abolish slave trade and slavery activities in their respective colonies.
ii. Principle of notification
it was agreed that that any European nation intending to have a colony in Africa must inform other nations through provision of treaties signed by African rulers.
iii. Peaceful setting of disputes
Any conflict that occurred between European nations was to be settled peacefully between the conflicting nations.
iv. King Leopold II to colonize Congo
Congo was given to King Leopold II as the conference recognized her influences.
v. Principle of effective occupation or control
European power which claims to any part of Africa would be recognized by the other powers if it was effectively occupied by such European power lie under this clause.
The claimants were supposed to develop the areas through their missionaries trading companies’ explorers starting plantations and other economic activities.
vi. Freedom of navigation
The conference declared that Congo, the Niger River and other big rivers as free zones for international navigation i.e. Niger River under the authority of Great Britain and Congo River under the authority of Belgium.
This means that the area was not supposed to be under control of one particular nation.
vii. Mutual agreement in drawing boundaries
There should be mutual agreement between two nations in drawing of boundaries.it was agreed to fix boundaries
i.e. to divide up the African continent so as to create separate colonies where each European nation would be legally responsible to establish colonial rule.
viii. Free operation of missionary activities
Missionaries were to operate free in every colony without any restrictions.
ix. Fixing of boundaries
It was agreed to fix boundaries so as to create colonies where each Europeans nation will be legally responsible to establish colonial rule.
SIGNIFICANCE OF BERLIN CONFERENCE
i. It resolved the international rivalries that involved in areas like Congo, Egypt and Nile.
ii. It speeded the partition of Africa under the principle of effective occupation.
iii. The Conference highligtened the unity and degree of cooperation among European powers.
iv. The Conference opened the interior of African land for colonization.
v. It avoided the possibility of the emperor powers to inter into war during the scramble for Africa.
vi. It led to the setting of colonial boundaries in African Continent
IMPACTS OF BERLIN CONFERENCE
Berlin conference had a lot of impacts to African continent. Some of these impacts were as follows: –
i. It intensified scramble for Africa. This later on led to misunderstanding between European nations, something which led to the emergence First World War.
ii. It laid down rules and principles for colonizing Africa. Therefore it legalized the colonization of Africa.
iii. It resolved hostilities among Europeans nations. E.g. Britain and France in Egypt
iv. It led to the drawing of African map and making of boundaries. This led to division of Africans e.g. Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania.
v. It led to division of Africa .Africa was divided into colonies among European nations
vi. It led to influx of Europeans in Africa who most of them were colonial officials and settlers who together came to colonize Africa.
vii. It led to total colonization of Africa (Loose of African control by themselves).
PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA
The partition of East Africa was the outcome of the development of European monopoly capitalism. The partition was done from 1886 to 1890’s and it involved only Britain and Germany.
REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA
The partition was influenced by a number of factors as follows.
i. The development of commercial rivalries.
These rivalries involved German East Africa Company (GEACO) and Imperial British East African Company (IBEACO). Each company wanted to monopolize trade and commerce in East Africa, hence the division of East Africa.
ii. Conflict between Anglican missionaries and Catholics in Uganda.
Anglican missionaries informed their mother country (Britain) about the interference of Catholics in Uganda and the reluctant of Kabaka Mutesa who did not allow them in Uganda.
Later on after the arrival of the Germans under Karl Peters in East Africa, the Catholic missionaries preferred Uganda to be in the hands of the Germans and not the British Anglican missionaries.
Therefore they supported the Germans under Karl Peter to sign a treaty with Kabaka Mutesa. This led to stiff conflict between Britain, France and German hence partition of East Africa.
iii. Early Belgian Empire at Congo.
There was early establishment of Belgian Empire by king Leopard II from the lower Congo to the coast of East Africa. King Leopard wanted to expand his Empire from lower Congo to the coast of East Africa. This antagonized the British and Germans who were already in the region hence partition of East Africa.
iv. The arrival of Karl Peters in East Africa.
Karl Peters arrived in East Africa in the 1880’s to sign treaties with African local chiefs. This jeopardized the British interest in Africa, something which led to the partition of East Africa.
v. Economic strategies of East Africa.
Presence of economic strategies like lakes and source of River Nile attracted both the Germans and the British. This led to intensive controversy, something which resulted into partition of East Africa.
vi. Presence of Treaties.
Both the Germans and British had signed different treaties with Africans rulers in the region up to 1886.These treaties resulted into contradiction between IBEACO and GEACO officials a thing which resulted to partition of East Africa.
vii. Investment influence in East Africa.
East Africa had been invested by Europeans mainly the British even before the Berlin conference. e.g. Abolition of Slave trade in Zanzibar and the establishment of Missionary centers. This led to the division of East Africa after the arrival of German.
STAGES IN THE PARTITION PROCESS OF EAST AFRICA
The partition process of East Africa began in the Berlin conference ( 1884 – 1885) and it was completed with the partition between Germany and Britain which took place between1886s – 1890s.
The partition between German and Britain was completed in two stages of agreement between them.
In East Africa, there was stiff antagonism between:
(c) Sultan of Zanzibar
The two stages in the partition of East Africa were: –
i. Anglo – Germany agreement (1886)
ii. Anglo – Germany agreement (1890)
ANGLO – GERAMAN AGREEMENT (1886) (DELIMITATION TREATY)
It was an agreement (Treaty) between Germany and Britain and the Sultan of Zanzibar the area of East Africa.
REASONS FOR HOLDING THE DELIMITATION TREATY
a) Presentation of treaty by Karl Peters.
On 5th Feb 1885, Karl Peters presents his treaty to Bismarck and President Kaiser William I in Berlin. Then he was granted a charter (imperial) that stated that “ any area visited by him was to come under German colonization, hence led to formation of GEACO.
Therefore, this led to stiff contradiction with IBEACO who claimed that East Africa was its area of influence hence, Delimitation Treaty.
b) German recognition of Karl Peter’s treaty.
The Sultan appealed to Sir John Kirk (A British Consul in South Africa) for assistance. This led to the Anglo – German treaty of 1886.
c) Companies interference.
The British and German companies interfered each other especially in commerce and treaty making, hence Anglo – German treaty of 1886.
RESOLUTIONS/ TERMS OF THE DELIMTATION TREATY (1886)
The Anglo German agreement (1886) had the following resolutions: –
a) German and Britain recognized the Sultan spheres of influence which were to be Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, Mogadishu, Brava, Mafia and 10 miles of the coastal strip.
b) Germany and British spheres of influences were to be divided by Lake Victoria.
c) The territory of Britain was to expand northward to Tana River
d) The territory of Germany was to expand South wards to Ruvuma River
e) Britain agreed to support German’s claims to establish a custom -house at Dar es Salaam.
f) Britain agreed to recognize Germany possession of Witu (a small market town in the Lamu County of Kenya, East Africa. Formerly it was the capital of the Witu Sultanate)
ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENT 1890 (HELGOLAND TREATY)
Refers to the second German agreement with the Britain over East Africa. The treaty was signed in 1890. The treaty was held due to various contradictions that arose after the delimitation treaty. The main contradictions were Germany possession of Witu and the 10 miles coastal strip of the Sultan.
REASONS FOR ANGLO – GERMAN TREATY 1890
a) German wanted to establish a protectorate in Zanzibar and eliminate Britain.
b) German wanted to occupy the island of Helgoland in the North sea. She wanted to establish a naval base.
c) A treaty between Kabaka Mwanga and Karl Peters. In Jan 1890, Kabaka Mwanga signed a treaty of protectorate with Karl Peters that placed Buganda in the hands of the Germans.
By then, Britain had already colonized Egypt, Britain did not want the source of River Nile to be under other powers. This led to Anglo – German agreement 1890.
d) Britain wanted the Sultan to cede to the Germans the 10 miles coasted strips.
TERMS/ RESOLUTIONS OF ANGLO-GERMAN AGREENMENT OF 1890
i. The Sultan agreed to cede the coastal strips to the Germans for the equivalent of two hundred thousand dollars.
ii. German agreed to abandon all claims of Witu island ( North of Britain sphere)
iii. Tanganyika mainland, Uhutu and Utusi become German sphere of influence
iv. Zanzibar, Pemba, Kenya and Uganda become British sphere of influence.
IMPACTS OF ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENTS OF 1890
i. Dar es Salaam and Mombasa become important main ports linked by railways
ii. From 1890 and 1894 Zanzibar and Uganda were under British control
iii. Tanganyika was under German rule by 1900
iv. German bought the coastal strip from the Zanzibar Sultan.
v. These treaties culminated colonialism in East Africa.
AFRICAN COLONIES WITH THEIR COLONIAL MASTERS
(a) Congo Free State (Belgian Congo) Now is called or known as Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
(b) Ruanda (Rwanda) and Urundi (Burundi) since 1922 – 1962.
i. French West Africa.
(a) Mauritanian (b) Senegal (c) Gambia ( 1681 – 1857) (d) French Sudan ( Mali) (e) French Guinea ( Guinea) (f) Cot d’ Ivory ( Ivory coast) (g) Niger (h) French upper Volta ( Burkina Faso) (i)French Dahomey ( Benin) (j)French Togoland( Togo)
ii. French Equatorial Africa
(a) Gabon (b) French Cameroon (1922- 1960) (c) French Congo (Republic of Congo) (d) Oubangi – Chari (Central African Republic) (e) Chad
iii. French North Africa
(a) French Algeria (b) French Protectorate of Tunisia (c) French Morocco
iv. French East Africa
(a) Madagascar (b) Comoro (c) Re-Union Island (d) Seychelles.
(a) German Kameron (Cameroon) (b) German East Africa (Ruanda, Burundi and Tanganyika from1885 – 1919) (c) German South – Western Africa ( 1884 – 1915) (d) German Togoland ( Togo 1884 – 1915).
(a) Portuguese West Africa ( Anglo) (b) Portuguese East Africa ( Mozambique) (c) Portuguese Guinea ( Guinea – Bissau) (d) Cape Verde (e) Sao Tome principle
(a) Egypt, Anglo – Egyptian Sudan (Sudan)
(b) British East Africa (Kenya colony, Uganda and Zanzibar Protectorate (1920)
(c) Bechuanaland ( Botswana)
(d) Southern Rhodesia ( Zimbabwe)
(e) Northern Rhodesia ( Zambia)
(f) British South Africa
(g) South – Western Africa ( Namibia – 1915)
(h) Sierra Leone
(i) British West Africa(Nigeria and British Gold Coast ( Ghana)
(j) Cameroon ( 1922 – 1960)
(k) Nyasaland ( Malawi)
(l) Basutoland ( Lesotho)
ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN AFRICA
Colonialism refers to the situation whereby one powerful nation extend its influence over the weaker nation politically, economically and socially.
Refers to the situation whereby one nation dominate another country politically, economically, socially and ideologically.
Refers to the administration system which was established by colonialists in Africa soon after the establishment of colonial rule.
It is an administration by colonialists in Africa colonies after the Berlin conference in 1886.
Soon after the Berlin conference, European powers struggled to establish their rule (administration) in their spheres of influence.
The establishment of colonial rule was aimed at creating total colonial control in African colonies so as to safe guard the colonial interests.
PHASES OF COLONIAL RULE (COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION)
In Africa colonial rule passed into two phases which were as follows:
1. Chartered Company Administration
2. Colonial Government/ State
CHARTERED COMPANY ADMINISTRATION
Refers to an association formed by investors or stake holders for the purpose of doing trade, exploration and colonizing colonies.
Historically chartered companies were formed by investors who gave this task to the traders and explorers in Africa to operate trade and commerce for profit maximization.
After being formed, they were granted/ given charter/ legal identification by their mother countries that identified them as official companies which were to represent the interests of the metropolitan. This is why they became known as Chartered Companies.
Before establishing colonial government, European powers gave chartered companies the task of establishing an administration with the purpose of seizing, colonizing and administering the virgin African territories.
Also they were to safeguard the interests of the metropolitan. These companies operated in those areas where their mother nations had economic interest.
COMPANIES IN EAST AFRICA
After the Berlin conference, East Africa came under control of two European powers, these were Germany and Britain. Therefore, the companies, which were operating in those colonies, come from those countries, involved: –
(a) Germany East Africa Company (G.E.A.CO)
(b) The imperial British East African Company (I.B.E.A.CO)
THE GERMANY EAST AFRICAN COMPANY (GEACO) 1884 – 1891
This was an organization established at the start of the Germany colonization of East Africa. The company in short, was responsible for the activities in the new colony (German East Africa) such as setting up leadership (administration), future explorations, development of the region etc.
It was founded in 1885 after presentation of a treaty by Karl Peters in Berlin in Feb 1885. It was official identified in 1887.It was succeeded by the German government in 1891. It established Bagamoyo as their colony’s capital but soon moved it to Dar es Salaam.
The founder was Karl Peters who was the most significant figure in the establishment of the company.
The company generally, played a big role in signing treaties with African chiefs in East Africa. The company was also involved in the partition of East Africa where two treaties were involved i.e. Delimitation Treaty ( 1886) and Helgoland Treaty ( 1890). Karl Peters also signed treaties with chiefs like Chief of Usagara, Chief of Uzigua, Chief of Ukamietc
THE IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICAN COMPANY (IBEACO)
It was a Commercial association formed so as to develop African trade in the areas controlled by the British Colonial power in East Africa.
The origin of I.B.E.A.CO can be traced back to 1856 when William Mackinnon formed a steam ship service in Indian Ocean. In 1862, it was renamed as the British Indian Steam Navigation where in 1886, it was given an imperial charter, and thus it became known as I.B.E.A.CO
In 1888, Sir William Mackinnon and I.B.E.A.CO were authorized to serve as administrator of East Africa Protectorate ( Kenya) which was the area of influence of British East Africa. Generally the company represented and defended the British interest in East Africa.
COMPANIES IN WEST AFRICA
In West Africa there were various chartered companies that were operating for the interests of their mother countries in Europe.
These companies were as follows:-
i. THE ROYAL NIGER COMPANY (RNC)
This was a British Mercantile Company that involved in Commercial activities in West Africa in the 19th c for the interest of Britain. It was formed by George Goldie in 1879 as the United African Company and it was renamed as the National African Company ( NAC) in 1881.
The company became known as Royal Niger Company (RNC) in 1886 July when the British government granted it a charter and Lord Aberdare became governor while George Goldie became Vice – governor.
The Company dealt with trade, negotiating treaties with African Chiefs and defending the British interests which were in jeopardy from the Germans and French. The Company existed for a comparatively short time (1879 – 1900) but was instrumental in the formation of Colonial Nigeria.
ii. GERMAN WEST AFRICAN COMPANY (GWAC)
This was a German Chartered Company formed so as to safeguard the interests of German and represents the interests of German in West Africa. The company was established in 1885 and given a charter to represent Germany interest in West Africa.
The company operated in Cameroon and Togoland and it influenced Germany to colonize the two countries in West Africa.
COMPANIES IN SOUTH AFRICA
The companies that were operating in this region were as follows:
i. BRITISH SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANY
This was the British chartered company formed by Cecil Rhodes in order to represent Britain in Southern Africa. The company was formed in 1884 and given a charter to operate in Southern Africa.
The company operated in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Malawi and Zambia and generally influenced Britain to colonize those areas.
THE ROLES OF CHARTERD COMPANIES
Qn. Discuss the roles played by chartered companies towards total colonization in Africa.
Qn. In which ways the chartered companies influenced colonialism in Africa.
Qn. Why European colonial powers transferred the task of establishing colonial administration to their chartered companies?
i. Signing of treaties.
The company had a task to sign different treaties that would enable their nations to colonize areas in Africa. For examples, a treaty between BSACO and King Lobengula of Matebelele and on 3rd October 1888. Also a treaty between GEACO and Chief Magungo of Msovero in 1884.
ii. Suppressing African Resistances.
It was a duty of the companies to suppress all resistances in Africa which were against colonial rule. For examples, GEACO suppressed Hehe Resistance in Tanganyika, IBEACO suppressed Nandi Resistance in Kenya etc.
iii. Abolition of Slave Trade.
The Chartered Companies also involved much in the abolition of Slave trade in Africa. They abolished Slave trade in order to establish a new trade called Legitimate trade which emphasized an exchange of goods and not slaves.
iv. Exploitation of African Resources.
The companies carried out import and export activities in order to exploit the African resources particularly minerals for the industries in the metro poles.
For example the B.S.A.CO ensured the exploitation of minerals in South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe
v. Establishment of Infrastructures.
Chartered Companies also played a big role in establishing and developing economic infrastructures such as roads , railways and ports so as to ensure inports and export.
For example, G.E.A.CO established the Central Railway Line in Tanganyika which was constructed from 1893 to 1905 – 1914, I.B.E.A.CO started the construction of a railway line from Uganda to Kisumu in 1896.
vi. Protecting the Boundaries of Colonies.
Chartered Companies also protected the boundaries of their colonies by preventing other rival powers from occupying them. For example: In East Africa G.E.A.CO ( Germany) signed the agreement of 1886 to resolve boundaries conflict between the two powers.
vii. Exploring the Hinterland of Africa.
The companies were responsible for exploring the interior of Africa and the resources available. The information brought by those companies fueled the process of colonization of Africa.
For example the Royal Niger Company (RNC) explored Nigeria, Niger and Ghana for the future colonization by the British.
viii. Generating Funds.
Chartered Companies also were responsible in generating fund through commercial activities so as to finance their administrative activities and expenses.
For example, the Mozambique Company by the Portuguese in Mozambique formed a private bank ( Banco de Beira) in Beira in order to run different colonial projects.
FAILURE OF COMPANY RULE (THE COLLAPSE OF CHARTERED COMPANY ADMINISTRATION)
Qn. Examine the factors behind the decline of Chartered Company rule in Africa.
Qn. Why Chartered Company administration in Africa did not live longer.
Company rule did not meet their responsibilities, they achieved very few objectives contrary to what was expected by their mother countries.
In 1900’s many Companies did not continue with their administration and therefore they transferred all their political administrative rights to the governments in their mother countries.
REASONS FOR THE FAILURE OF CHARTERED COMPANIES
There were several reasons which led to the failure of the Chartered Companies in Africa as follows:
a) Financial problems.
Many of the Chartered Companies later on ran bankrupt. The bankrupt was due to the fact that home government did not support much the /company operations.
Also the Companies had many responsibilities to fulfill, for example Suppressing resistances and construction of infrastructures. Generally, this led to failure of these Companies.
b) African resistances.
The Companies also faced many resistances from the natives. This was due to the fact that, Africans were not happy with the presence of the foreigners.
For example G.E.A.CO faced a Stiff resistance from the Coastal people led by Abushiri and Bwana Heri in 1888 – 1889. Also I.B.E.A.CO faced stiff resistance from the Nandi in Kenya. This contributed to the failure of the companies.
c) Lack of Experienced and skilled administrators.
The companies recruited most of the staff outside East Africa without much regard of their experience and qualification. Also, much of the Company officials and traders were less competent in their responsibilities hence failure of Company rule.
d) Presence of tropical diseases.
This limited the penetration of the company officials to reach the interior. For example Malaria killed many G.E.A.CO and I.B.E.CO officials something which resulted into shortage of officials hence failure of the companies.
e) Language problem (barrier).
There was language barrier between Africans and the Company Officials. It was difficult to communicate between the two groups( Africans and Europeans) as each group found the language of other being difficult. Hence, decline of Company rule.
f) Lack of transport and communication facilities.
This was another problem that faced Chartered Company administration to the interior was not easy as some area lacked good and variable transport networks.
This made the exploitation of resources and administration in general to become difficult. Hence, decline of Company rule.
g) Harsh Climatic Condition (Bad climatic condition).
The climatic condition of various parts of Africa was not conductive to Europeans. For example in East Africa the climate was not friendly and favarable to Company Officials hence failure of Company’s activities.
h) Insufficient knowledge about Africa.
Most of the Company Officials lacked sufficient knowledge about the areas where the companies were operating. For instance, the I.B.E.A.CO Officials were not sure on the navigability of some rivers such as River Tana and Juba
i) Maltreatment of the natives.
In some areas, the company rule over exploited and harassed badly the indigenous. The maltreatment of the companies created hostility with Africans, something which led to stiff resistance.
For example Karl Peters (G.E.A.CO) was nicknamed as “Mikono ya Damu” by the natives in East Africa due to his brutality. He therefore faced a lot of resistances and dislike until his dismissal.
METHODS USED IN IMPOSITION OF COLONIAL RULE
The colonial powers used various methods or tactics in imposing their colonial rule in Africa. Those methods depended on nature of the Africans in a particular area and the response from the Africans. There were different factors which determined the method to be used in imposing colonial rule.
FACTORS THAT DETERMINED THE TYPE OF METHOD TO BE USED
There were different factors that determined the type of method which was to be used by colonialists in imposing their colonial rule in Africa.
Some of these factors are as follows:
i. Centralized states with strong leaders.
Some areas in Africa had centralized political system with strong leaders who were not ready to accept colonial rule. In those areas, colonialists employed military force and conquest.
For examples King Jaja of Opobo in Nigeria, Mkwawa of Uhehe Chiefdom, King Lobengula of Matebele land etc.
ii. Traditional conflicts between Africans.
Some African societies had tribal conflicts with each others. This made colonialists to employ collaboration method where they sided with one of the societies in conflict in order to defeat the other society.
For example: The Germans collaborated with the Bena and Sangu against the Hehe, The British collaborated with King Lenana of Maasai against his brother Sendeyo, Chief Lewanika of Rwozi Kingdom collaborated with the British against other parts of Central Africa which were a threat to him etc.
iii. Weaker societies.
In areas with weaker societies, colonialists used treaties of protection and claimed to make friendship between them and African chiefs. A good example, By 1885, Kari Peters had already made twelve treaties with Chief of Usagara, Uzigua etc.
iv. Society problems.
Some societies had various problems like diseases, drought and shortage of food. Colonialists decided to use diplomacy and collaboration as a method to impose their colonial rule.
A good example was the Maasai under Lenana who collaborated with the colonialists due to rinder pests and drought.
v. The Nature of African Society.
Some societies in Africa were very reluctant and did not easily want to be under colonialists. This made colonialists to apply the use of force and gun boat diplomacy to intimidate them.
For example, The British applied gun – boat diplomacy against King Jaja of Opobo, The British also applied this method in Kenya to conquer the Nandi.
THE METHODS USED TO IMPOSE COLONIAL RULE
a) Treaty Making (Diplomacy).
Through this method, African chiefs signed bogus treaties with Colonial agents deliberately. African chiefs did not understand the details of those treaties something which led to colonial rule.
b) Military force (Conquest).
This method was used in those societies that attempted to oppose colonial rule. Many African societies were not ready to be under colonial rule
Therefore, they were conquered by the colonialists by using military methods. A good example were the Mandika, Hehe, Yao and the Nyamwezi
c) Divide and rule technique.
It was a method used by colonialists to divide the Africans and weakening their unity. The colonialists used the existing conflicts between Africans so as to magnify the differences. The weak societies were supported by colonialists against their rivals,
For example, The British instigated disunity between the Buganda and Bunyoro people, The French created and magnified disunity between Mandika people and Toklar people etc.
d) Gun boat diplomacy.
It was a method aimed at creating a sense of fear ( intimidation) among Africans. Colonialists exposed their military weapons publicly so as to create psychological fear among Africans and making them withdraw their intention of resisting colonial rule. This was used to conquer Jaja of Opobo and the Nandi by the British.
Through this method, European allied or collaborated with a group of Africans which could defend their interest against another group.In most case, they allied with weaker society so as to occupy the strong society.
For example, this was applied by the British who collaborated with Semei Kakunguru so as to conquer Eastern Uganda.
AFRICAN REACTIONS (RESISTANCES/RESPONSE) TO COLONIAL RULE
African societies did not keep silent at time of imposition of Colonial rule. Africans reacted differently and vigorous to the imposition of colonial rule. There were three forms of African reactions ( responses) towards imposition of colonial rule.
FORMS OF AFRICAN RESISTANCES
African Resistance resistance refers to an opposition or disagreement of a certain matter. African resistances refers to different oppositions of reactions that were taken by African Society towards the imposition of colonial rule in their localities.
Many African resistances historically occurred during the establishment of colonial rule after the Berlin Conference. But these resistances ( reactions) took place in three forms:
a) Active Resistance
b) Passive Resistance
c) Adaptation (Collaboration)
A. ACTIVE RESISTANCE
This was a response where the Africans resisted actively by showing of military opposition. In this form, Africans took their weapons to fight against colonial encroachment in their localities. However, active resistances were divided into two groups
a) Small – Scale Resistance
b) Large – Scale Resistance
SMALL SCALE RESISTANCE
This refer to the resistance whereby the local community armies or traditional leaders of a certain ethnic group resisted against colonial rule.
In other words, it was an active resistance that covered a small area involving one tribe or two. A good example of Small Scale Resistance included Nyamwezi Resistance, Hehe Resistance, Samore Toure Resistance, Yao Resistance, Nandi Resistance etc.
LARGE SCALE RESISTANCE
It was a resistance which involved more than one ethnic group ( tribe). This is where ethnic groups joined together to fight against Colonial rule. A good example was Majimaji resistance in Tangayika, Nama and Herero resistance in Namibia, Shona and Ndebdele ( Chimurenga Uprising) in Zimbabwe etc.
Sometimes, this type of resistance is named as Secondary resistance. This type of active resistance was common among societies which accommodated colonialism at the beginning but later decide to resist after being subjected to colonial exploitation and oppression.
B. PASSIVE RESISTANCE
This was the type of resistance where Africans did not involve the use of arms to fight and did not cooperate with the colonizers. In other words, Africans did not do anything ( to resist or cooperate) with the colonizers.
What these Africans did, was to resist to participate in the colonial activities and payment of taxes but not imposition of Colonial rule in their areas.
This was done by most of the smaller societies in Africa which could not unite and oppose the Encroachment of colonial rule.
C. ADAPTATION (COLLABORATION)
In this type or response, since African chiefs welcomed the Europeans, assisted them to consolidate their colonial rule and sometimes they allied with the colonizers to conquer the neighboring societies.
A good example of African Chiefs who collaborated with the Colonizers includes: Chief Lewanika of Rwozi Kingdom, Chief Mareale of Kilimanjaro, Mumia of Kenya, SemeiKakunguru in Uganda, ApoloKagwa in Uganda etc.
REASONS FOR AFRICANS TO COLLABORATE WITH COLONIALISTS
There were various reasons why some Africans Chiefs and Individuals collaborated with the colonizers during the imposition of colonialism.
Some of those reasons were as follows:
i. Expectations of Africans.
Some Africans were ignorant of the colonizers ambitions. They hoped to be protected by the colonialists against their rivals to revenge against their enemies. This made them collaborate with colonizers. For example, The Sangu collaborated with the Germans against the Hehe who were attacking them everyday
ii. Physical Factors.
Factors like diseases, drought and shortage of food made some societies to collaborate with the colonizers For example, the Maasai by the time of Colonial intrusion were seriously affected by Cholera, rinderpest which killed their cattle and weak economy.
This made them to collaborate. Also the Haya , Ankole and Ha were seriously affected by jiggers something which made them not to react militarily, instead they decided to collaborate.
iii. Individual interests.
Some Africans Chiefs wanted to defend their economic and political positions. Therefore they decided to collaborate with colonizers fearing that the whites would remove them from powers.
iv. The role played by Missionaries.
The penetration of missionaries and their preaching made the Africans to refrain from resisting and decided to collaborate.
Fighting was regarded as a sign of backwardness according to the missionaries. Also fighting was considered to be against Christians beliefs.
v. Presence of Traditional conflicts.
Some African Societies had internal conflicts with each other’s whish were traditionally. Therefore Africans tended to welcome Europeans as allies against their rivals for political domination. A good example Chief Lenana of Maasai against his brother Sendeyo.
vi. The Desire of wealth.
Africans also collaborated with colonialists as they hoped to gain more wealth from. This was due to the fact that Europeans had many luxurious goods which attracted many Africans. A good example was Apollo Kagwa in Uganda.
vii. The need to participate in colonial government.
African Chiefs also collaborated with the colonizer because they hoped that colonialists would include them in their colonial governments. A good example was Semei Kakunguru In Uganda
REASONS FOR AFRICAN RESISTANCES AGAINST COLONIAL RULE
There were several reasons why Africans resisted against the imposition of colonial rule In their areas. Africans reacted against the imposition of colonial rule due to the following reasons.
a) The desire to protect their culture.
Some societies in Africa resisted because they wanted to preserve their religion and culture. In some parts of Africa, Islamic culture was deeply rooted and was accepted as a society religion.
For instance the Coastal people in Tanganyika resisted against the Germans in East Africa due to religious motives. Germans who were Christians seemed to jeopardize the interests of the Muslims. Therefore Abushiri and Bwana Heri led the Coastal people in resisting against the Germans for this reason.
b) They wanted to protect their land.
Some African societies resisted because they wanted to protect their economic interests such as land. For instance: the Nandi, Shona and Ndebele and the MajiMaji uprisings were waged so as to protect the economic interests of the people in those areas.
c) They wanted to defend Social and Political Sovereignty.
Some African chiefs resisted against colonial rule because they realized that, their power and position would be destroyed after the arrival of colonizers.For exampleSamoreToure of the Mandika empire, Mkwawa of Hehe, Kabarega of Bunyoro etc.
d) They wanted to prove their strongest in political and military.
Other societies fought because they believed to be politically and militarily strong. Worse enough, they were ignorant of the European military capability.They had an experience of war in their localities, which made them to be confident for any fight.
A good example were: SamoreToure of Mandika Empire, believed that his forces could defeat the French, The Nandi in Kenya believed to be strong enough to defeat I.B.E.A.CO forces etc.
e) They wanted to preserve their trade monopolies.
In other areas the chiefs mobilized their people to resist so as to preserve their trade monopolies. Some societies had a big monopoly on trade that was conducted in their areas for example, The Yao and the Nyamwezi had a strong hold to the East African Long distance trade
Therefore they resisted the Germans due to this reason, King Jaja of Opobo and Asante people of West Africa fought against the British for the purpose of safeguarding their economic interests( trade) etc.
f) They resisted because of their ideology (belief).
Other societies fought because of their belief that cultivate ( instilled) the sense of unity and confidence to them. For example, the MajiMaji was fueled by the use of the magic water in which the people built confidence that it could enable them to win the war.
This was due to the people beliefs that once the whites attempted to shoot them, the bullets would turn into water. This made them to have confidence and resist the Germans.
g) They resisted because of Colonial exploitation and oppression.
Africans united to resist against the foreigners due to Colonial exploitation and oppression. Africans were not happy with taxation, forced labor, land alienation and cattle confiscation.
For example, the MajiMaji resistance in Tanganyika and the Nama and Herero resistance in Namibia were both fueled by colonial exploitation and oppression.
RESISTANCES IN EAST AFRICA
COASTAL PEOPLE’S RESISTANCE (1888 – 1889)
It was a resistance waged by the Coastal people in Tanganyika against the Germans. The coastal people were led by Abushiri and Bwana Hery, it was the earliest resistance in Tanganyika. Abushiri bin Salim had his headquarters at Pangani.
The trouble started on August 8th 1888 when the Germans arrived to establish themselves along the Coast. The Coastal people under Abushiri rioted and refused/ protested the existence of the German flag in their area.
The war later on spread to Bagamoyo, Tanga, Mikindani and Kilwa and it also reached Pangani. Bwana Heri, the ruler of the Zigua joined his force together in that war.
The Germans sent Von Weismann to suppress the resistance. The Germans recruited mercenaries to assist them in suppressing the resistance. These involved the Zulu, Turkish, Nubians and Somalis.
Von Weismann captured Pangani and other Coastal towns in 1889. Abushiri was defeated and escaped , but he was captured by the Germans after being betrayed by JumbeMagaya of Usagara. He was hanged at Bagamoyo on December 15th 1889.
Also the people of Kilwa organized the resistance in 1894. They were led by Hassan bin Makunganya who led the people of Kilwa to fight against the Germans.
The resistance did not last longer as Makunganya was captured and hanged on November 15 1895 on a mango tree ( MwembeKunyonga)
THE HEHE RESISTANCE (1891 – 1898)
This was a resistance that was waged by the Hehe under Chief Mkwawa (Mkwanyika) to fight against the Germans at Uhehe. The Hehe Resistance was a remarkable war in the German history as far as the colonization of Tanganyika is concern. This is because the war took a long time than other resistances that faced Germany in Africa.
Mkwawa fought the Germans in order to safeguard his political and economic interests. This was due to the fact that, the German traders interfered the trade in his area.
Mkwawa decided to block the trade caravans which were passing in his area. This tendency provoked the Germans who decided to react against Mkwawa. At the beginning, Mkwawa wanted to make compromise with the Germans as he sent delegates to meet the Germans Officials who were at the, however the German killed those delegates.
This made Mkwawa to respond in the same way where in 1891, he killed German Commander Emily Von Zelewiksy and hi soldiers. Therefore the Germans were seriously defeated in the first attack.
The Germans reorganized for another attack where in 1894 they attacked Uhehe and managed to capture Kalenga, which was Mkwawa’s capital.The war continued for four years until 1898 when the Hehe succumbed to the German colonial rule.
However, Mkwawa could not accept the same of surrendering, he shot himself. The German soldier found Mkwawa already dead and decided to cut off his head and took it to Germany.
THE NYAMWEZI RESISTANCE (1891 – 1893)
It was a small – scale resistance waged by the Nyamwezi in Western Tanganyika. The resistance took place between 1891 and 1893.The Nyamwezi people were led by Isike to fight against the German colonial rule. Isike led the Nyamwezi people to defend his political sovereignty and economic interests.
The Germans threatened his position, as they wanted to control the Long distance which was the backbone of Isike’s economy. The Nyamwezi fought bravely and managed to resist the German’s attacks. However in 1893 the Nyamwezi were defeated and Isike decided to shoot himself rather than being captured by the Germans.
THE YAO RESISTANCE (1890 – 1899)
This was a resistance undertaken by the Yao under the leader, Machemba to fight against the Germans. This occurred after introduction of hut tax by the Germans but the Yao refused to pay the hut tax.
The Germans decided to attack them but at the initial stage, Machemba won the Germans attempts. In 1899, the Germans sent an ultimatum which forced him to surrender out Machemba refused and continued to resist the German Colonial rule.
Therefore in July 1889, the Germans decided to apply their Military force and as a result they occupied Machemba’ s fort and imprisoned his followers. Machemba himself had no any other choice rather than escaping to Mozambique.
NANDI RESISTANCE (1895) – 1905)
Refer to the resistance that was waged by the Nandi people in Kenya against the I.B.E.A.CO ( The British Colonial rule). The Nandi resisted the British intrusion under their leader Koitalel Arap Samoei. The title of the Nandi leader was called “ Orkoiyot” Traditionally, the Nandi were pastoralists.
During the 19th c the Nandi became superior as they managed to win different battles with their neighboring societies such as the Maasai. The Nandi grew more powerful as the Maasai power declined.
Therefore, during the advent of British Colonial rule, the Nandi resisted strongly against the British penetration. They did not allow Europeans even to cross their territory. In 1895, they killed a British trader named West as he attempted to pass through their land. This awakened the British to start fighting the Nandi.
REASONS FOR NANDI RESISTANCE
i. The Construction of railway.
The I.B.E.A.CO started to construct the railway line which was to pass through the Nandi’s land. This railway line made the Nandi to start resisting because the railway interfered their daily activities and culture.
ii. Land problem.
The construction of the railway had impact on the Nandi people. The Nandi were removed from their land as the British wanted to create vacant land for whites settlement. This made the Nandi not to continue with pastoral activities hence resistance against the British.
iii. The Nandi resistance.
The Nandi believed that they were superior as they had experienced different wars with their neighbors and won them. They believed that their culture was superior and they did not want their culture to be interfered by anybody. This made them to resist the British.
iv. Kimnyole’s prophecy.
Kimnyole was an Ex – Orkoiyot. During his reign, he had prophesized that Nandi land would one day be ruled by the foreigners. Also he added that one day there would come a long and big snake from Indian Ocean belching smoke and fire. The snake turned to be the railway, and when the Nandi saw the construction of the railway they started to resist against the British.
v. The need to protect their political freedom.
Koitale Arap Samoei organized the Nandi to resist against the British in order to restore and protect their political freedom. This is due to the fact that, the Nandi did not want to under British Colonial rule. Although the Nandi resisted heavily the British colonial rule for about 10 years , but they were at last defeated. It was in 1905 that the Nandi were defeated by the British.
The British managed to defeat them after killing their leader Koitalel Arap Samoei (Orkoiyot). The British Commander, Colonel Meinertzhagen visited the Nandi leaders as Orkoiyot came out to greet his visitors he was shot dead together with other leaders, From that moment, the Nandi were removed to the reserves
EFFECTS OF NANDI RESISTANCE
a) Massive loss of life.
The Council of Elders, the Orkoiyot and the army warriors were both killed
b) Destruction of the Nandi properties.
The Nandi villages and farms were set on fire by the British. The British also confiscated a lot of cattle which belonged to the Nandi.
c) The Nandi became squatters.
The Nandi became squatters on the white farms. They were employed as cheap laborers
d) Africans were pushed into reserves and others were left landless.
Those who were pushed into the reserves, were turned into squatters and employed as cheap laborers.
e) Completion of the railway line.
The defeat of the Nandi made the British to continue with the construction of the railway line which in turn facilitated transportation in Kenya and Uganda respectively.
f) British Colonialism.
The defeat of the Nandi made the British to colonize the Nandi country. The Nandi lost their sovereignty.
MAJI MAJI WAR (1905 – 1907)
Refers to the war which was waged by Southern Tanganyika tribes against the German Colonial rule. It was the large – scale resistance which covered South – Eastern part of Tanganyika.
The war involved several tribes including the Zaramo, Ngindo,Luguru, Makonde, Matumbi, Mbunga and Ngoni just to mention the few. This ethnic groups joined together to fight against Germans under the leadership of Kinjekitile Ngware at the area near Ngalambe river.
MajiMaji war got its name for the Swahili word “ Maji” which was used to refer to magic water that was used by KinjekitileNgware from Rufiji River.
He told the people that after drinking and being washed by that water, the bullets of the Germans could not harm anyone, The German bullets could be changed into water. The magic water gave the fighter( Southern tribes) the confidence of fighting against the Germans.
REASONS FOR THE OUTBREAK OF MAJI MAJI WAR
i. Africans wanted to defend their political sovereignty.
The Germans invasion interfered the traditional political structures of Southern Tanganyika societies and replaced them with rulers such as Akidas and Jumbes. The Matumbi for instance, hated the Arab Akidas who the Germans gave power to rule on their behalf. The Akidas and Jumbes were very brutal hence MajiMaji war.
ii. The Introduction of Taxation.
The natives were forced to pay tax to the colonial government. The Jumbes and Akidas enforced the collection of taxes by using excessive force. This created a lot of embarrassment to the Africans such as beating men in front of their wives and children. This as a result led to the outbreak of MajiMaji war
iii. Introduction of Cash crops production.
In 1902 the German governor in Tanganyika Julius Von Sodden, ordered that every Akida must establish a cotton plot where the people would come to work. The Africans faced hardship as they worked for long time and were low wages. This eventually led to MajiMaji uprising.
iv. Land alienation.
The cotton program was introduced in African areas where Africans were dispossessed of their land and in turn were made landless. This situation made Africans to wage the MajiMaji war so as to restore their land.
v. The character and conduct of Germans.
The Germans were very harsh, brutal and lacked moral consideration and respect. For instance, the Ngindo complained on the German mercenaries and others on their sexual harassment and misbehaving with their wives. This eventually led to the MajiMaji uprising.
vi. Cultural interference.
The Germans imposed the policy of destroying African customs. The African culture was disgraced. The Missionaries condemned the initiation ceremonies and circumcision and worse enough they introduced Christianity religion. This as a result led to the MajiMaji war so as to restore the African culture.
vii. Good Leadership of Kinjekitile.
KinjekitileNgware managed to join and mobilize several ethnic group magic water which created unity among the Africans and finally made them confident to wage the MajiMaji war.
EFFECTS OF MAJI MAJI WAR
i. Famine and starvation.
Large famine and starvation broke out among the Africans. This was due to the fact that, the Germans attacked the farms and grain stores. It is estimated that 50,000 people died due to famine caused by the war.
ii. Large scale migration.
Many Africans migrated from the areas which were affected by the war. They were looking for asylum for their survival.
iii. Provided a lesson to the Germans.
The sacrifice of thousands of Tanganyikans killed in a war was an important lesson to colonizers that Africans were ready to die for their country’s independence.
iv. Provided a foundation for anti – colonial struggles.
MajiMaji war acted as a foundation for the later anti – colonial struggles in the 1940’s and 1950’s.
v. It inspired other nationalist’s fighters.
MajiMaji war inspired other nationalists like MwalimuNyerere to unite all Tanganyikan people just like what Kinjekitile did in order to fight for independence later in 1950’s.
vi. Provided a lesson to other Africans.
Other Africans outside Tanganyika were inspired by Maji Maji to unite together as a way to fight independence. For instance the Kenyans used Mau Mau movements against the British Colonial government in order to demand their independence.
vii. The Germans changed their system of ruling.
The German Colonial government decided to change their system of ruling by adopting peaceful approaches rather than coercive approaches.
AFRICAN RESISTANCES IN CENTRAL AFRICA
In Central Africa there were also various African reaction) resistances) against the establishment of Colonial rule in different parts of the region. In this region, Africans also reacted in different ways against the arrival of the colonizers in their localities. Some of these were as follows:
SHONA AND NDEBELE RESISTANCE 1896 – 1897 (CHIMURENGA UPRISING)
Mashona and Matebele resistance ( Chimurenga war) refers to the resistances which took place in the present day Zimbabwe against the establishment of Colonial rule.It was a reaction organized by the Mashona and Matebele people against British Colonial rule in Zimbabwe ( Southern Rhodesia) which was represented by B.S.A.CO
The origin of Chimurenga uprising can be traced back in 1890, where at first the Whites ( British) who were under B.S.A.CO arrived in Mashona land. The Shona people decided to collaborate with the British as they hoped that, the British would protect them against their traditional rivals, the Ndebele.
But the matter was not so. The Shona later on in 1893 came to realize that their interests were in jeopardy because the B.S.A.CO started to monopolize trade and land in Masholand. Therefore, in the same year 1893, the Shona decide to react militarily against the British. But this was fruitless as the Shona were very weak militarily compared to the whites.
Three years later, In April 1896, the Shona decided to join with their traditional rivals, the Ndebele to make a joint uprising which came to be known as Chimurenga uprising.
REASONS FOR THE OUTBREAK OF CHIMURENGA UPRISING
i. Land alienation (Expropriation).
The B.S.A.CO expropriated the Shona land without consulting the local chiefs. Nearly all the fertile land in Mashona was taken away and given to the whites. In other hand the Ndebele were turned to be squatters on European farms. They were required to pay rent of labor for the use of land. This as a result led to the outbreak of Chimurenga uprising.
ii. Forced labor.
The B.S.A.CO established policies which forced/ compelled Africans in both Matebele land and Mashonaland to supply labor in whites and mining. Labor was recruited by armed forces or by police forces something which provoked anger to Africans hence Chimurenga Uprising.
iii. Trade monopoly.
The Chimurenga Uprising was also due to the British South African Company (B.S.A.CO) which interfered and monopolized the trade patterns of the Shona and Ndebele. The Shona for long time had established a mutual trade relationship with the Portuguese in which they obtained arms and a variety of goods at low price. The B.S.A.CO attempted to stop that trade something which angered the Africans. Also the Ndebele were forced by the Company to dispossess the gold mining and buying and selling from South Africa. This also added to the inevitability of the Chimurenga Uprising.
iv. Cattle confiscation.
The Mashona and Matebele depended much en – cattle rearing. The B.S.A.CO interfered with the native Germany as they started to confiscate the cattle and give to the whites. Meanwhile, the Ndebele were only permitted to keep at least 40,00 cattle. Therefore, for those with above the permitted number, their cattle were offered to the volunteers or to the B.S.A.CO. Other exceeding cattle were dispatched to the South Africa. This as a result led to the Chimurenga Uprising because Africans were discontent with Cattle confiscation.
v. The outbreak of rinderpest diseases.
In 1895, there was outbreak of rinderpest disease which killed many cattle in both Matebele and Mashona land. The outbreak of this epidemics was associated with the presence of Europeans ( White men) in the region. Traditional leaders said that the Rinderpest occurred due to the presence of the white men, and therefore it was a punishment or curse from the ancestral spirits. In other hand, the B.S.A.CO in the process of combating the epidemics, ordered the people to kill their cattle. The decision of the British provoked the Africans who started organizing the war against the British hence Chimurenga war.
vi. Harsh treatment.
Chimurenga uprising also was influenced by harsh treatment which was practiced by the British officials, the B.S.A.CO administrators and also the Native commissioners.Frequent brutal and corporal punishment were exercised by the B.S.A.CO administrators and the native commissioners who used the “ Sjambok” a kind of whip to punish the Africans. The elderly people were flagged and killed in public, and the conditions in the mines were deplorable.
vii. Transportation policies.
The British introduced different taxes in Matebele and Mashona land and the collection of tax usually took the form of cash payment or grabbing cattle, goats and grains from the people who could manage to pay taxes. In 1894, Hut tax was introduced. The Shona and Ndebele Chiefs regarded this measure as a threat as the British government did not consult them hence Chimurenga war.
viii. Payment of low wages.
Chimurenga uprising was also resulted from payment of low wages to the Africans by the British in both Matebele and Mashona land.Africans were lowly paid in the mines and farms compared to the work they were performing. Also the environment of works and working hours were exploitative and harmful hence Ndebele and Shona Resistance.
ix. Abolition of the Indunas.
The British abolished the Indunas age regiments among the Matebele. Military towns were outlawed and the Ndunas were deprived their power, importance and position. Above all it was embarrassing for the British to nominate the Shona policemen to enforce laws and order in Matebele land. This angered much the Ndebele hence they joined with Shona to resist the British.
x. Cultural interference.
The British Missionaries disregarded the traditions and customs of the Shona and Ndebele people. The Missionaries wanted Africans to abandon their culture, especially ignoring their traditional religion which was based on Mwari cult. This eventually resulted into the outbreak of Chimurenga Uprising.
xi. The desire to restore the lost independence.
The British interference and colonialism in Matebele land and Mashona land created hostility and Africans day to day were discontent with the situation.
EFFECTS OF CHIMURENGA WAR
By 1897, the whites with their new and modern weapons and tactics defeated the Ndebele and finally the Shona. There was a cup of effects of the Chimurenga war as follows:
i. Death of people. The Chimurenga warriors were taught a bitter lesson and many of them died during the uprising. Many people died and many other were put on trial for murder and hanged.
ii. The Indunas ( retired soldiers) in Matebele were recognized and given some leadership in the new system and paid salaries.
iii. The Ndebele were redistributed new lands in the lowlands where they lived happily without being interfered.
iv. The B.S.A.CO administration incorporated and expropriated more fertile land and cattle as war compensation. This made many Africans to lose fertile land and their cattle.
v. The Ndebele received favors from the whites because they ceased the fighting against the British. But the Shona in other hand did not cease fire during the uprising and continued the war. That is why they were not favored by the B.S.A.CO administration.
vi. Many Africans adopted Christianity due to the inability of Mwari cult and Mhimo cult to defeat the white men. This eventually resulted into stagnation of African culture.
vii. The company administration was blamed for brutal administration and oppression.
viii. The defeat of Chimurenga war resulted into total Colonial occupation by the British in both Mashona and Matebele land. The two regions became a single country which was named Southern Rhodesia by the British and the Shona and Ndebele were subjected into divide and rule policy.
ix. Divide and rule policy. After defeating the Shona and Ndebele, the British introduced a policy of administration called “ Divide and Rule Policy” in Southern Rhodesia.This was aimed at disuniting the Shona and Ndebele so as to weakening the Africans and avoid another uprising.
RESISTANCES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
In South Africa especially South Western Africa there was another African reaction against the establishment.
THE NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE (1904 – 1907)
This was an African resistance which was waged by the Nama and Herero people in present day Namibia from January 1904 – 1907.Originally, three main ethnic groups occupied Namibia, these were : The Ambo, the Herero and the Nama. The Ambo and the Herero consisted of Bantu group and engaged in animal husbandry and crop cultivation. The Nama were the Hottentots who were traditionally the pastoralists. Both of them valued land for crop cultivation and animal husbandry.
The settlement of the Bantu (The Ambo and Herero) in Namibia triggered traditional conflicts between them and the Hottentots’(Nama). This was due to the fact that both of them valued land for economic activities, The Bantu for Cultivation while the Hottentots’ for livestock keeping. The hostility went on until the arrival of the Europeans, who also manipulated this rivalry for their benefit.
The Herero received warmly the Germans as the Herero hoped that the whites would assist them against their rivals, Nama. Soon after their arrival in Herero land, the Germans declared a protectorate over Namibia and established their administration. Worse enough, the Germans set up a military base at Windhoek and launched various attacks on the Nama between 1884 and 1904.The Germans created various economic and political policies that provoked the outbreak of the resistance. For example in 1903, they inaugurated the Settler Policy that demanded Africans(Both Nama and the Herero) to move out their land and give to white settlers. In January 1904, there w as a massive Herero revolt against the Germans. The Nama joined the war in October in the same year. The Nama were under Hendrick Witbooi while the Herero were under Chief Samuel Maherero.
REASONS FOR THE OUTBREAK OF NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE
Both the Nama and Herero had political, social and economic discontent as follows:-
i. Land alienation.
The German settlers alienated and occupied fertile land of the Africans and pushed them into unproductive land. This created hostility between Africans and German government something that led to the resistance .
ii. Cattle confiscation.
The Nama and Herero depended much on cattle for their survival. The Germans seized their cattle in order to compel them to work in German farms and mines. This angered them very much hence Nama and Herero resistance.
iii. Introduction to forced labor.
In 1896, the Germans introduced forced labor as they demanded laborers in their economic sectors. The Nama and Herero were forced to work in railway construction, public buildings, plantation and mines. Worse enough they were paid lowly. This resulted into Nama and Herero resistance.
iv. The outbreak of rinderpest disease.
In 1903, there was outbreak of rinderpest, the epidemic that swept away many Nama and Herero cattle. The Native leaders and other spiritual leaders expounded this epidemics as a curse from the ancestors who were unhappy with the presence of the white men ion the country. Therefore, this made the Nama and Herero to wage a resistance against the Germans.
v. Creation of reserves.
In 1903, the colonial administration created area of reserves for the Herero and Nama. That means, the Nama and Herero were forced to go and live in the reserves near the Kalahari desert. These reserves were barren and infected with tsetse flies. This as a result led to the resistance.
vi. Payment of debts.
Soon after the arrival of the Germans in Herero land, they established commercial relationship with Africans where Africans (Herero) borrowed money from the Germans. But later on, the Africans failed to pay their debts then the Germans started to force them to repay. This angered Chief Maherero and his Africans something which led to the resistance.
vii. German administration.
Both the Nama and Herero were disgusted by the German administration that never paid attention to the traditional authority. The tradition of chiefs were not consulted in policy making something which affected their leadership position. This led to Nama and Herero so as to regain their political independence.
viii. Cultural interference.
The Nama and Herero were not happy with the new culture introduced by the Germans especially the new religion, Christianity. Therefore, Africans resisted because they wanted to maintain their culture.
EFFECTS OF NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE
a) Depopulation – Many people lost their lives while others got severe sufferings. This as a result led to depopulation in Namibia.
b) Land alienation – The natives in Namibia lost their land after the war. The Nama and Herero were thrown out of their fertile land and taken to reserve areas near the Kalahari Desert where many of them died.
c) Cattle confiscation – The Nama and Herero lost all their cattle after the war. The German government deprived all their cattle.
d) Creation of concentration camps – The Germany government introduced the concentration camps where thousands of women and children were grouped there and many of them died of hunger.
e) Total colonialism – The defeat of the Nama and Herero paved way for total colonialism in Namibia where the Germans established their colonial government.
REACTIONS/RESISTANCES IN WEST AFRICA
In West Africa, there were also various resistances from Africans against colonial rule. Some of the reactions in West Africa were such as Samore Toure Resistance (Mandika Resistance), Asante Resistance etc.
SAMORE TOURE RESISTANCE 1882-1898 (MANDIKA RESISTANCE)
This was a resistance organized by the Mandika people of Mandika Empire under Samore Toure in present day Guinea.
Historically, Samore Toure was the leader of the Mandika people who occupied the area of present day Guinea. He was a soldier and a successful trader. During his reign, he conquered different tribes and states which were against Islamic culture that dominated the Mandika Empire. He managed to establish a strong military state and wanted to create strong new Mali Empire under Mandika tribe.
In previous time, he involved himself in legitimate trade with European traders. The profit acquired from selling gold and kola nuts he used to strengthen his military force. He was a very brilliant tactician and a military strategist something which enabled him to offer the longest resistance in the history of colonialism in Africa.
REASONS FOR LONG RESISTANCE OF SAMORE TOURE
(Why Samore Toure resistance took so long)
There were several reasons why Samore Toure resistance took a long period of time (almost 16 years). Some of those reasons were as follows:
a) Strong army – SamoreToure had a strong organized army which all the time was full armed and ready to fight. This led to a long resistance.
b) Scorched Earth method – Toure used this method in fighting the French. It was a technique of destroying crops and food stores in the place where the French marched. This was done purposely in order to make the French starve when reaching the areas. This also added to a long resistance.
c) Presence of wealthy – Samore Toure had enough wealthy obtained from gold trade. He used this wealthy to strengthen his army something which led to a strong resistance.
d) Production of weapons – Samore Toure had ability to produce his own weapons. This led to availability of enough weapons which added to a long resistance of Toure.
e) Islamic religion – Samore Toure used Islamic religion to unite the Mandika people to resist the French who were Christians. This led to a strong and long resistance of Samore Toure.
f) The use of Guerilla Toure used guerilla war technique to fight the French. The use of guerilla tactic made the Mandika people under Toure to resist for a long period of time because the French had no experience with guerilla fighting.
g) Intelligence system – Toure had a strong security system through which enemies were often known before doing anything. Therefore, before any attack, Toure had plans to encounter it. This also added to a long resistance.
h) Fighting experience – Toure and his soldiers had a fighting experience from fighting with different societies and enemies. This also contributed to a long resistance of Samore Toure.
WHY SAMORE TOURE WAS DEFEATED?
(Reasons for the defeat of Samore Toure)
i. Internal weakness – Other people in Mandika Empire were against Islamic religion due to the fact that Toure used force to make people follow the religion. This contributed to weakness hence the defeat.
ii. French military – The French used strong weapons which were more modernized than of Toure. This is the reason why Toure could not face the French in an open battle. Therefore, the defeat of SamoreToure was inevitable.
iii. Betray from his people – At the end Toure was betrayed by his subjects who saw it difficult to win the war. Others were tired of resisting against the French who had strong weapons.
iv. Natural disasters – There was serious food shortage to the people, long period of drought, and outbreak of diseases as the war continued. This also added to the defeat of Toure.
v. Divide and rule – The French took advantage of presence of enmity between Mandika Empire and other neighboring empires. They made different collaboration with neighboring societies as a way to defeat Toure. For examples, in 1881 they collaborated with King of Futa Djalon and also in 1887 they collaborated with Ahmedu Seku of Toklar Empire. This added to the defeat of Samore Toure.
vi. Dispossession of caravan routes – The French captured the trade caravan routes and controlled gold production zones which were sources of income to Samore Toure. This led to failure of Samore Toure to accumulate Wealthy and therefore he became unable to finance his military hence the defeat.