TOPIC 3: AFRICA AND EXTERNAL WORLD – HISTORY FORM TWO
Africa and External World was the interaction or contacts between African continent with Asian and European countries before African societies had been under colonial rule in the 19th century.
Firstly, Africans had contacts with Asians (Middle East and Far East) countries like China, Lebanon, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Persia and Arabs. Later European nations like Portuguese, British, Dutch and French came to Africa.
EARLY CONTACTS WITH THE MIDDLE EAST AND FAR EAST
Early commercial or trading contacts between African continent with the Middle East and Far East dated back early in 200 B.C.
The early foreigners to visit Africa were people from Asia including; Lebanese, Syrians, Indonesians, Persians, Arabs and China.
The trade contact between the pre-colonial African societies, Middle East and Far East began around 8th century and 10th AD when more traders from China, Indonesia, India and Arab world came to trade.
TRADE CONTACTS THROUGH THE INDIAN OCEAN CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO PHASES:
1. Trade contacts from the 2nd century B.C to the 7th century A.D
These contacts involved Persian and Chinese traders with the societies along the East African coast. Trade activities were not intensive during this period.
In this time it’s where the book known as “Periplus of the Erythrean Sea” was published as the commercial guide handbook produced in the 10th C by the Greek Egyptian sailor to show the goods found across Indian Ocean during the 2nd B.C up to 7th C A.D
2. Trade contact from 8th C A.D to 15th A.D.
This was the phase in which there were intensive and frequent trade contacts between the East African Coast areas and the Middle East countries such as Persia (Iran), Iraq, Oman, and Saudi Arabia as well as Far East countries like India, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka
Many traders from these countries came to exchange foreign commodities with African products.
Arabs comes with dhows and the Chinese came in junks
GOODS/ COMMODITIES/ TRADE ITEMS EXCHANGED BETWEEN AFRICA, MIDDLE AND FAR EAST
1. Goods from Middle East and Far East to Africa
<> Arabia: Beakers, iron pans, swords, daggers, beads, ornaments, glassware and rice
<> China: Porcelain, bowls, Plates and Silk clothes
<> Persia: Ports, glass bowls, swords and ornaments
<> India: Cotton cloth, metal implements, beads, swords, daggers and spears
<> Spice Island: Spices
<> Syria: Iron pans, bowls, beakers and swords.
<> Thailand and Burma: Stone pots and jars
2. Goods from African continent to the Middle East and Far East
Ivory, Gold, Slaves, Tortoise shells, Rhinoceros horns, Animal skins, Copper, Iron, Ostrich feathers, beeswax, and coconut oil
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL MOTIVES/AIMSFACTORS OF THE CONTACTS BETWEEN AFRICA
MIDDLE AND FAR EAST
1. To acquire raw materials such as ivory, gold, animal skins and copper at the coast
2. To obtain fertile land for economic investments like coconuts and clove plantation
3. To explore on the wealth of African and determine how its resources could be exploited
4. To trade with Africans by introducing their goods like beads, cloth, mirrors and exchange with African goods
1. To spread the Islamic religion in Africa. Some visitors come to spread Islamic religion. The Islamic religion started to spread in western Asia from 7th century mainly through holy wars known as JIHADS which aimed at spreading the Islamic religion.
Therefore Muslims Arabs from middle and Far East visited African coast with the aim of spreading Islamic religion to the African people
2. Seeking for the refuge (peaceful areas to settle) because in their countries there were religious and political conflicts
3. Exploration of African coast. The visitors were interested to know the accessibility of the coast and interior Africa to assess the volume of commodities which were in great demands such as gold, slave and animal skins.
4. The need to search new trading settlements. Early visitors come to Africa with the aim of establishing trading settlements along the East African Coast and the horn of Africa.
FACTORS WHICH HELPED TRADERS IN SAILING TO THE EAST AFRICAN COAST
1. Monsoon winds- Which blew from the North-East Wards Africa from November to April. They blew Asian dhows to the Middle East and Far East from May to October
2. Achievement in marine technology enabled traders to obtain vessels which were strong, safe and which could travel long-distance
3. Advanced weapons and self defense tactics. This assured traders that they could protect themselves against enemies wherever they went.
4. The compass direction. This enabled sailors to determine the right direction to their destination wherever they were.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF EARLY CONTACT BETWEEN AFRICA, MIDDLE AND FAR EAST.
1. It exposed East African Coast to the outside World economies. Africa was integrated in the world economy through supplying commodities which were in great demands by the outside world.
2. Exploitation of Africa resources. The contact involved the exploitation of human resources by taking Africans away as slaves and some commodities such as Ivory, Gold and animals skins were taken away.
3. Decline of local industries. The consumers’ behaviour changed from buying local mode commodities to buy foreign commodities such as cotton clothes and food utensils.
4. Loss of manpower. Example; slave trade in Africa decreased the manpower because traders captured the able bodied people who were essential for production; the aged, weak and children were left behind while they could not manage to produce at large quantity.
5. Introduction of new crops. These crops were very useful to African because they provided food stuffs as well as cash crops such as coconut, palms, rice, millet, wheat, cloves, sugarcane and oranges
6. Introduction of money economy. In East Africa coastal cities coins were minted and used as the medium of exchange therefore the use of currency replaced barter trade system.
7. Introduction of new technology. For example the art of writing, navigation and record keeping.
8. It led to unequal exchange. The early visitors brought less valued items in Africa like beads, ornaments, and bowls while taking valued items from Africa like gold, silver, ivory and agricultural raw materials.
9. Decline of local industries due to the introduction of foreign goods.
1. It led to growth and spread of Swahili language and culture. The language coined vocabularies from Arabic language.
2. Spread of Islamic religion (Qur’an and Islamic laws) and culture. For example dressing style of “Kanzu”, bangles and necklaces.
3. Growth of towns and cities states which established trade as the basic activity such cities were as Mombasa, Kilwa, Pemba, Sofala, Malindi, Zanzibar and Mogadishu.
4. Emergence of mullatos due to intermarriage. This occurred due to the contacts between Arabs men and African women
5. Development of Arabic architecture or building styles. The use of stones and limes in building. Example Great Mosque which was built by al-Hassan Ibn Suleiman II at Kilwa about 1270.
6. Rise of warfare and depopulation due to capturing of slaves. The wars caused insecurity, loss of lives and underdevelopment in many places in Africa.
7. It led to social stratification or classes. The contacts resulted into classes between the richer class who were the Arabs and Swahili traders and the poor class who were majority Africans.
REVISION EXERCISE 1
1. What were the social and economic motives of the contacts between Africa, the Middle East and Far East?
2. Identify the major commodities which were exchanged between Africa and the Middle and Far East.
3. What were the social and economic effects of the contacts between Africa, Middle and Far East?
4. Explain four factors that enable traders to come in East African coast.
THE CONTACTS WITH EUROPE
Africa had the trade contacts with the European nations such as Portuguese, British, Dutch and French around the 15th Century, during the commercial capitalism in Europe.
THE PORTUGUESE INVASION
The Portuguese were the European invaders or traders who came from European the country named Portugal. The Portuguese contacts with Africa began since 15th century. At this time, there was great demand for gold, silver, silk and spices especially among the Kings and wealthy people.
Initially, these items reached Europe from their source in Asia via a land route through the Middle East. However, by 15th century the Turkish Ottoman Empire had occupied a large part of the Middle East, blocking the trade route and imposed high taxes on trade items passing through their territory.
The European traders force to look for an alternative trade route through the Atlantic and Indian oceans their route to India.
Hence, the Portuguese developed sufficient navigational technology.
The Prince Henry the navigator son of King John of Portuguese supported the voyages. They searched routes as resulted into voyages by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487, A Portuguese explorer who reached the southern tip of Africa and called it the Cape of Good Hope.
Where Vasco da Gama in 1498 became the first Portuguese to reach East Africa at Malindi, also the same years arrived in Calicut and India.
NOTE: Portuguese conquered East Africa in 1503, Zanzibar in 1505, and Mozambique in 1507. Mombasa became the Portuguese headquarter in East Africa.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC MOTIVES/AIMS/FACTORS OF THE CONTACT BETWEEN AFRICA AND THE PORTUGUESE
1. Finding sea route to India to get gold, silk and spices in the 15th century after Ottoman Empire blocked the route between India and Europe; hence Portuguese came across the India Ocean
2. Establishment of trade. They need to defeat the Asian traders and rules in their monopoly of the India trade
3. Need of creating Portuguese Empire in Africa and dominate the trade between Asia, Africa and Europe
4. Exploitation of African resources. For example they discovered the gold mines at Akan in West Africa.
5. Establishing stopover points for their ships heading to India.
6. To acquire land to open plantations for the production of guavas, pineapples and cassava.
1. To spread Christianity. Portuguese wanted to spread Christianity in order to reduce Islamic influence along the coast of Africa.
2. They search for Prestor John in Ethiopia who has established the Christian kingdoms in Ethiopia.
3. Adventure. Portuguese had advanced ship building and navigation skills enabled them to travel far and wide in search of new lands to explore.
4. They desired to establish anti-Muslims alliances in East African coast.
THE COMMODITIES THAT CAME FROM PORTUGAL
- Clothes, guns, liquor, and sugar
- Slaves, gold, copper, ivory, and animal skins
THE MAP SHOWING THE PORTUGUESE ROUTES TO ASIA AND BEFORE AND AFTER 15TH CENTURY
THE PORTUGUESE RULE IN EAST AFRICA
By 15th C Portuguese succeeded to establish their rule in East Africa. After that the Portuguese built the Fort Jesus in Mombasa which could strengthen their military power thus establishing the effective control over the East Africa coastal areas. Hence:
<> 1592 was the built of Fort Jesus.
<> 1698 was the broke down of Fort Jesus.
<> 1499 was the year when Vasco da Gama returned back to Portugal.
FACTORS WHICH ENABLED THE PORTUGUESE TO DEFEAT AFRICAN AND ARABAS COASTAL RULERS
The Portuguese conquered and ruled the East African Coast for almost 200 years due to the following reasons:
1. Portuguese had strong army, well trained and advanced tactics. As the result they overpowered the local people who only had ground forces
2. They had advanced and stronger weapons such as cannons, pistols, hand and guns than the people they met at the African coast that used poor and crude tools.
3. Lack of unity among the coastal city states in East Africa. Portuguese were able to attack the city states one after another. Example in Malindi Sheikh Ahmad allied with Portuguese to defeat Mombasa which was his main rival city states
4. Portuguese used the built strong garrison at Mombasa (Fort Jesus) that their soldiers used as the base of fighting.
5. The cruelty and ruthless of the Portuguese created fear to African hence failed to fight against the Portuguese.
6. Portuguese used divide-and-conquer tactics, using friendly states to fight others
7. Portuguese controlled strategic harbours which they used as bases for their soldiers and ships.
THE SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PORTUGUESE CONTACT WITH THE AFRICAN COAST
A. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPACTS
1. Decline of coastal city states. States such as Sofala, Mozambique, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Mafia, Pemba, Malindi, Lamu, Gendi, Merka, Brava and Mogadishu
2. Growth of Swahili language. Some Portuguese words in cooperated to Swahili language. Example of word like Meza (table), gereza (prison),Leso, Kaptula, Figo Etc.
3. Insecurity and loss of manpower due to slave trade introduced by the Portuguese.
4. Spread of Christianity in many parts of the African coast. But with little success
5. Adoption of Portuguese architectural design e.g. Elmina castle, Fort Jesus and the Vasco da Gama pillar.
6. Destruction of houses, death, starvation and suffering due to frequent raids. E.g. they cut down coconut trees, killed people and livestock’s
7. Portuguese facilitated the domination of some countries by Portugal. Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau in the 19th Century
1. Introduction of crops especially food and cash crops in Africa e.g. as guavas, maize, groundnuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pineapples, pawpaw, Sugarcane and yellow maize.
2. Disruption of the Indian Ocean trade. The trade between East Africa, Far East and Middle East was interrupted by the Portuguese; they controlled Gold trade at Sofala and Kilwa. Trade was no longer in the hands of Arabs
3. Introduction of slavery. The Portuguese turned the Swahili as salves to provide cheap labour in the plantation owned by Portuguese settlers. African slaves worked in Mafia, Zanzibar, Pemba, and Pate plantations.
4. Decline of local industries due to importation of manufactured goods which destroyed the markets of traditional items. Example of goods was swords, clothes, bowls and plates.
5. Decline of agricultural production in African societies. The Portuguese were slaves traders at the coast and attacked many weak societies as slaves hence people flee away avoiding to be captured as slaves
6. Unequal exchange caused exploitation of African minerals and agricultural products. For example gold, diamond, copper, ivory, bees wax, rhinoceros horns were exchanged for less valuable goods like clothes, alcoholic drinks, beads, shoes, and cigarettes. These goods from Europe didn’t increase development of the coastal societies.
7. Africans learn the use of animal manures to increase soil fertility
FACTORS FOR THE COLLAPSE OF PORTUGUESE DOMINATION IN AFRICA
Portuguese rule at the East African coast lasted for about 200 years. Arabs and Swahili eventually fought back against the Portuguese to restore the coastal city states under their rule.
The fall of the Portuguese in the coast begun when the Arabs attacked and demolished Fort Jesus in Mombasa in 1698. By 1700 Portuguese rule at the coast had fallen.
The reasons for the fall of the Portuguese rule include:-
1. Poor administration. The Portuguese were not good administrators, many of them had low level of education and lacked experience to govern
2. Portuguese were very few. The Portuguese did not have enough men as soldiers to protect their establishment. As a result they were overpowered by Swahili and Arabs.
3. Prolonged resistance by the Arabs and Swahili progressively weakened their base.
4. Support from the Turkish sultanate. Coastal Arabs and Swahili received military support from the Turkish and Oman Arabs from Middle East. Amir Ali Bey-a Tukish sailor supported Arabs to fight against Portuguese.
5. Attacks by the Zimba and the Segeju. The two groups moved up from the lower Zambezi River and killed the people they met on their way.
In 1587 they attacked Kilwa and killed many people including the Portuguese to the extent that some Portuguese called the cannibals or man-eaters. Their attacks weakened the Portuguese forces.
6. Intensive competition in the Indian Ocean trade. During the 16th Century A.D During this period there was an increase of trade ships owned by the Dutch and the British hence made difficulties in competition
7. Vastness of the area under the Portuguese. The coastal cities extended many miles along the coast and so it was resources consuming to guard them all.
8. Lack of support from other European powers to suppress the coastal uprising. Since they came with their own mission, the Portuguese received no support from other European powers
9. Harsh climatic condition in East Africa. The Portuguese often attacked by tropical diseases such as Malaria and sleeping sickness.
10. Social, culture and religion differences i.e. Muslim against Christians. The coastal people dislike the Portuguese
11. Loss of trade due to Portuguese taxes and restrictions.
12. Harsh treatments and punishment practiced by Portuguese in their leadership.
13. Oman attacks to the Portuguese. The Oman siege of Fort Jesus between 1696 and 1698 hence marked the end of Portuguese in East Africa around 1700.
THE IMPACTS OF THE FALL/DECLINE/ COLLAPSE OF PORTUGUESE RULE IN EAST AFRICA
1. Shift of control of trade. The collapse of the Portuguese gave the Oman Arabs to control the Indian Ocean trade
2. Sultan shifted his capital. Their fall made it possible for Oman Arabs under Sultan Said Seyyid to shift their capital to Zanzibar
3. Consolidation and spread of Islam. People were who converted to Christian re-converted to Islam; they built mosques, schools to teach Islam.
4. Portuguese building were left in ruins. The ruins remained as historical sites i.e. Fort Jesus in Mombasa in Kenya. It now a tourist attraction point in East Africa
5. The Oman Arabs revived the East African Economy. Trade which had declined during Portuguese rule, prospered again and plantation agriculture was introduced
6. The departure of the Portuguese provided room for other European nations to explore the East African coast. The English, Dutch and French visited the coast without fearing Portuguese resistance. This laid foundation for colonization in later years
REVISION EXERCISE 2
1. What were the social and economic motives of the Portuguese contacts in Africa?
2. Draw a sketch map and show the voyages of discovery by the Portuguese
3. Identify the commodities exported from Africa to Portugal
4. Identify the commodities imported from Portugal to Africa
5. What were the social and economic impacts of the contacts between African and Portugal?
6. What were the reasons for the fall of the Portuguese rule in East Africa Explain its impacts in East Africa
B.THE DUTCH SETTLEMENT AT THE CAPE
The Dutch or Boers were the people who came from Holland (Nether land) and firstly settled at the cape in Table Bay in April 1652 with the Dutch Ships (Harlem) under the leadership of Jan Van Riebeek.
Sometimes they are called “BOERS” the term refers to Dutch farmers. When they settled at the cape they called themselves by the name of Afrikaners that meant the “whites of Africa” who developed language known as Afrikaans.
Dutch had a company known as United Dutch East India Company (UDEIC). The company had trade with India and other Arabs in Asia, at the cape they grew vegetables, fruits and kept animals such as cattle.
Also they had barter trade with Khoikhoi exchanging tobacco and alcohol for hides, skins, and honey and ostrich feathers.
SOUTH AFRICA BEFORE THE COMING OF THE EUROPEAN
The earliest inhabitants of South Africa were the San (Bushmen), and the Khoikhoi (Hottentots) and The Bantu.
<> Were short, yellow or light brown skin
<> They have click sound in their language
<> They lived in South African high land
<> The economic activities were hunting and gathering
<> They had no permanent settlement and lived in caves
THE KHOI KHOI
<> They resemble the San but are taller in nature
<> They were cattle herders and lived a more sedentary life than the San
<> The San helped the Khoi Khoi to graze their animals
<> The Khoi Khoi and San together formed Khoisan
<> This was the largest group of the early inhabitants of South Africa. They include Tswana, Venda, Ndebele, Swazi, Shona, Xhosa and Ngoni.
<> They lived in a settled life and grew crops such as maize, beans and pumpkins
<> They used iron tools and produced large quantities of food.
<> They traded with other neighbor communities
MOTIVES / REASONS FOR DUTCH SETTLEMENT AT THE CAPE
1. To establish settlements because the cape’s climate was similar to Europe’s.
2. To establish farms and grow produce different crops. The Cape had fertile soil which could produce vegetables and fruits for the ships which sailed to India.
3. To control the Indian Ocean trade which was dominated by the Portuguese?
4. To establish a stopover point for Dutch ships. The sailors could rest and get fresh food and water
5. To trade with local communities. E.g Khoikhoi and San such as beads, copper, alcohol and tobacco for cattle
6. Security. The cape was a good location for the Dutch to station their troops which would be on guard top protects their ships in the Atlantic Ocean.
7. A getaway to the interior of Africa. The Dutch settled at the Cape because they thought it was a doorway to the interior of Africa which was believed to be rich in minerals and other resources
In 1652, the Dutch East India Company opened a station that had the following tasks:
1. To provide fresh food and fresh water for Dutch sailors on transit to and from India
2. To establish navigation guides for the company’s ships
3. To provide repair services for ships going to and from India
4. To offer treatment for sick’s sailors who were on transit
THE EFFECTS / IMPACTS OF THE DUTCH SETTLEMENT AT THE CAPE
1. Enslavement of Africans. The Dutch turned the Khoikhoi into slaves to work for them in their farms.
2. Land alienation and cattle raiding. They took land from the Khoikhoi and Xhosa who lived in the East of the Cape for growing vegetables, fruits and pasture Dutch and raided cattle’s
3. Introduction of racial segregation (apartheid policy) African were segregated for example Khoikhoi could not get quality education, health services and shelters like the Dutch.
4. Unequal exchange and enslavement of indigenous. African marked the beginning of the process of subjugation and exploitation of South Africans by white agents of capitalism
5. Introduction of new culture. The spoke of Afrikaans, a language that had words from Portuguese, Khoikhoi and Bantu language.
6. Increase of warfare in South Africa. As the Boers tried to evict Africans from their land. Examples were Kaffir wars, The Battle, Anglo-Zulu war, and Battle of Blood River.
7. Occurrence of new diseases. The Dutch brought foreign diseases to which Africans had no natural immunity. For example, small pox reduced the Khoikhoi population from 200,000 in 1652 to only 20,000 by 1767
8. Intermarriage between the Dutch and Africans which led to Mullato population.
9. European settlements expanded more and more into African land as more settlers arrived from Europe i.e The British
AFRICAN REACTIONS TO THE DUTCH INVASION
Africans did not sit back and watch their land and cattle being taken by the Boers. Africans waged a series of wars against the Dutch invasion of their land.
Some examples of the African wars against the Boers are discussed below:
1. The Kaffir wars or War of dispossession.
This was the series of wars waged by the Xhosa from 1779 when the Boers extended their settlements to the Great Fish River. The Xhosa fought about a minimum seven such wars between 1779 and 1846. The wars aimed at preventing the Boers from further occupation of the Xhosa land.
The first three wars fought in 1779, 1789, 1803. The fourth war known as “Ndhalambi” brokeout in 1812, the fifth was known as the Makanda fought in 1819, and the sixth was led by Macomo and Tyali in 1834. The seventh occurred in 1846 due to locusts and poor harvest in the Xhosa land.
2. The Battle of Vegkop of 19th October, 1836.
This war started by the Ndebele under Mzilikazi. They fought against the Boers in the Orange Free states when the Duct (Boers) was moving northwards from the cape. Ndebele were defeated because of the use of poor and crude weapons.
3. The Battle of Blood River on 16th February, 1837.
This was the war waged by the Zulu under Dingane against the Boers settlers in Natal. Although they killed Piet Retief, the leader of the Boers in Natal in April, 1837, in the end they were defeated hence their land was taken by the Dutch.
4. Anglo-Zulu war 1879.
The war was fought between the British and the Zulu people. The war erupted when the British High Commissioner, Sir Bartle Frere told Cetshwayo to abandon the age-group regiments and break-up the Zulu political organization after they had taken Natal from the Boers since 1843.
It is clear the Africans reacted by fighting against the white’s settlement and their expansion in South Africa.
The reasons which made the Africans like Xhosa, the Ndebele, and the Zulu to fight were to protect their land from the white intrusion, protect the herds, and African culture which was later affected by the presence of the whites.
Africans did not succeed because they had weak weapons like bows, arrows, and clubs that could suppress the white men who used strong firearms.
REVISION EXERCISE 3
1. What were the motives of the Dutch settlement at the Cape?
2. Explain the effects of the Dutch settlement at the Cape.
3. How did the Africans react against the Dutch invasion in their land?
SLAVE TRADE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN SEA – BOARD AND TRANS – ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
A: SLAVE TRADE IN THE INDIAN OCEAN SEA
Slave trade refers to the trade activity of buying and selling human beings like other commodities. Slave trade flourished between the 18th and 19th Century
Slave: Is a captive held as a property of the owner and has no freedom or rights
Slavery: Is a state of owning and using slaves
The two main areas where slaves flourished where:
<> In the East African coast via the Indian Ocean that connected Africa to Asia, The Middle East and the Indian Ocean Islands
<> In the West African coast via Atlantic Ocean connecting Africa to Europe and the Americans.
ORGANIZATION OF SLAVE TRADE IN INDIAN OCEAN SEA BOARD
The organization of slave trade in East Africa in 19th century depended much on the factors which were in three phases:
1. Source of slaves
Slaves came from African societies and African local ruler’s played a key role in providing slaves. These were: The Baganda of Uganda, The Nyamwezi and The Yao of Tanzania and The Kamba of Kenya
2. Organization of Caravan
The famous traders who organized caravans were Tippu tippu between the East coast and present day Congo Kinshasa, Mlozi in Belgian, Rumaliza in Ujiji Kigoma and Msiri in urea country present day Zambia.
Arab and African traders dominated the organization of caravans to and from the coast. They paid local rulers and agents to get slaves and ivory from the interior when they reached the coast, they exchanged slaves for porcelain, beads, firearms, glassware, silk, ivory
And animal skins from Arabs and manufactured goods such as clothes, soft drinks, and beer from Europeans. This cycle ensured slave trade continued.
3. The capital to buy Ivory and Slaves
The Indian merchants called Banyans who were based in Zanzibar provided the capital for the trade. Later in the 19th century British capital in form of clothes, beer and guns became predominant.
REASONS FOR THE EXPANSION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN SLAVE TRADE
1. Demands for labour by the Oman Arabs who introduced clove and coconut plantations in Zanzibar and Pemba.
2. Demand for slave labor for the French sugar plantations in Mauritius and Reunion Island. Initially, the French mostly depended on the area around present-day Mozambique for slaves, but by the 1770s the demand exceeded supply. Hence, the French came further north, to East Africa, in search of slaves.
3. Slaves were needed as porters. They ferried goods such as ivory and gold from interior of Africa to the Coast. This was important for the ivory trade, especially to the American, Indian and British traders who took part in it.
4. Demands for slave labour in the Portuguese coffee and sugar plantations in Brazil. In the first half of the 18th century, the Portuguese expanded their plantations. As a result, their sources of slaves in West Africa and Mozambique became inadequate, so they came to East Africa.
5. Demands for slaves to work in mines and plantations in North America
6. Demands of slaves to work in date’s plantations in the Middle East led to the rise of slave trade in the Indian Ocean
7. Demands for slave labour as domestic workers and soldiers in the Muslims nation Arabia. There were major slave markets in Zanzibar, Bagamoyo, Pemba, Kilwa, Mikindani and Mombasa.
THE TECHNIQUES USED TO GET/OBTAIN SLAVES
The following are the techniques that used by rulers and agents to obtain slaves include;
1. Through raiding village, burning houses and capturing people.
2. Through buying prisoners of war obtained from local civil wars.
3. Through selling of domestic slaves.
4. Through ways of laying and ambush unsuspected people such travelers, cattle herders.
5. Through treachery or luring Africans to the coast. Traders often lured Africans to the coast promising them that once they reached at the coast they would offer those jobs
7. Kidnapping. Slave traders kidnapped people and took them as slaves
8. Buying unwanted people in the society. Chiefs sold people like poor people, debtors and criminals such as murders and thieves.
From interior to the coast –Ivory and slaves, animal skins, minerals.
From the coast to the interior caravans brought clothes, salts wine, glass ware beads and ornaments
THE MAIN EAST AFRICA SLAVE TRADE ROUTE (CARAVAN ROUTES)
A: THE NORTHERN ROUTE
This route had two main branches: One started at Pangani or Tanga and went as far to Arusha and Kilimanjaro. The second branch started at Mombasa and end up to central Kenya
B: THE CENTRAL ROUTE
This route also had two branches: One branch started at Bagamoyo, then passed through Mpwapwa, Tabora, and Ujiji and crossed Lake Tanganyika into Congo. The second branch started in Buganda and went along Burundi and Karagwe and finally reached Tabora
C: THE SOUTHERN ROUTE
The southern route began at Kilwa, Lindi or Mikindani and went to Zambia. The Yao cooperated with the Arabs and Swahili in capturing slaves along this route
CHARACTERISTICS OF SLAVE TRADE
There were the characteristics which prevailed during slave trade.
1. There were several human torture and transits.
2. Humiliation and dehumanization of the slaves.
3. Slave were chained and forced to carry heavy loads like salt, ivory and copper.
4. They were brutally whipped by their organizers.
5. They were blended like animals. Those who were unfit were killed or left to die on the way.
SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF SLAVE TRADE ON THE AFRICAN SOCIETIES
A: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EFFECTS
1. Depopulation; many people were taken to work as slaves and others died on the way. It is estimated that over 15 to 30 million people were sold in to slavery while others died.
2. Separation of families. Many people were take away from their homes and never returned back; hence they lost the close relative members
3. Loss of security and development of fear among the people due to frequent war.
4. Development of inter-states war. This was caused by capturing of slaves
5. Spread of Swahili language and the Islamic religion to the interior Africa
6. Dehumanization of African people. Slave activities were characterized by torturing of people. People were badly fed, chained, killed and forced to carry heavy loads. These treatments had no respect for people and were not humanity.
7. Destruction of villages, properties and families. The raiders burnt peoples’ houses, farms and their properties
B: ECONOMIC EFFECTS
1. Decline of production. Many people didn’t settle in one place because they feared to be captured as slaves hence failed to produce in Agriculture, handcrafts, mining and industries.
2. Loss of man power. Slave traders preferred the young and healthy aged 15-35 years old people who could make huge profits in the markets. Hence the labours left behind were unfit for various activities leading to the decline of production.
3. Technology stagnation; as all able bodied people were taken away with their skills and crafts as slaves, hence only children and old ones were left behind who depended on importing European goods from Europe, America and Asia
4. Underdevelopment of East Africa; slave trade increased dependence on European capitalist countries.
5. The interior Africa was opened to the outside world which later encouraged the coming of European missionaries.
6. Introduction of new food crops through the trade routes like maize, coconut, dates, cloves, pawpaw’s, rice, groundnuts both at the coast and in the interior
7. Emergency of dynamic leaders such as Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe in the 19th century.
EAST AFRICA UNDER OMAN’S RULE 1840
A CASE OF SULATN SEYYID SAID
The Oman Arabs rulers began to show interest of dominating Eastern Africa since the 16th century.
During this time more traders were coming from Oman to sell their goods at the coast.
Foreign control of the coast by Oman rulers began when the Marzui Oman in Mombasa established’ the independent Shekhdom in 1741 and maintained independence up to 1837.
In 1828 the Marzui dynasty in Mombasa was conquered by Sultan Seyyid Said of Oman
Later in 1840 Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar. Sultan Seyyid Said established his rule from Cape Delgado in the South to Pate and Lamu in the north coast.
In 1813 and 1825 he conquered Pate, Tanga, Mtang’ata and Pemba so the Sultan had influence in areas such as Kilwa Kivinje, Kilwa Kisiwani, Mafia and Lindi through loyal governors.
So the effective control of East African Coast became effective after Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar in 1840.
MOTIVES/AIMS OF OMAN ARABS IN EAST AFRICA COAST FROM THE 18TH
1. To have clear control/monopoly of trade existed at the coast especially Indian ocean trade.
2. They wanted to control all the city states along the coast.
3. To stop the spread of Christianity led by Portuguese and maintaining Islamic culture.
4. To look for fertile land areas in order to establish clove and coconut plantations
WHY SULTAN SEYYID SAID SHIFTED HIS CAPITAL FROM MUSCAT OMAN TO ZANZIBAR IN 1840?
Sultan Seyyid Said ruled Zanzibar up to 1856 when he died. After his death the throne was inherited by his son Majid who was succeeded by the Sultans as shown later in his chapter.
1. Zanzibar was a good place which could help in maintenance of security in all the coastal areas ruled by Seyyid Said
2. Zanzibar had good harbours with deep water where the trade dhows and ships from Europe and America could dork to unload the trade items.
3. Zanzibar was a good location to control Indian Ocean trade between the mainland of East Africa and Asia.
4. Zanzibar had a cooler climate and fresh water than Middle East.
5. Fertile soil for agricultural purpose especially clove and coconut production
6. Abundant fresh water for irrigation and soiling in Zanzibar
7. Zanzibar was the centre of the of the coastal trade
WHY THE OMAN ARABS (SULTAN SEYYID SAID) EXAPANDED CLOVE AND COCONUT PLANTATION IN ZANZIBAR?
1. He wanted to produce raw materials for manufacturing of tooth paste, perfumes and spices
2. He wanted to control the spice farming and selling trade
3. Availability of cheap labour at the coast in form of trade
4. Availability of fertile soil of Zanzibar and good weather for growing cloves and coconuts
5. Absence of American resistances against the Sultans economic ambitions in Zanzibar
WHY SULTAN SEYYID SAID ENCOURAGED ARABS, INDIANS AND EUROPEAN TRADERS SETTLEMENT IN ZANZIBAR?
He encouraged many traders to run trading activities in Zanzibar, he also invited the Indian traders known as the Banyans who became money lenders and Sultan was appointed as tax collectors for the sultanate government.
He also encouraged trade ships from Britain, Germany and United States to fetch cloves, coconut and ivory from Zanzibar.
1. To get help from Arabs and Indians to administer Zanzibar effectively
2. To expand commerce through the use of the Arabs, Indians, and European since they had more experience in inter-continental trade than the Africans
3. To ensure that Zanzibar had sources of financial capital for Arab investment
4. To make alliance with other nations like Britain and Germany so as to gain support of his invasion at East African
THE FALL OF OMAN RULE (SULTANATE) AT THE COAST
Around 20th century the Oman Arab rule started to decline. This Sultan was held by about eleven (11) rulers starting from Sultan Seyyid Said up to Sayyid Jamshid bin Khalifa.
FACTORS FOR THE FALL OF THE SULTAN RULE WERE AS FOLLOWS:
1. The abolition of slave trade in East Africa badly affected Sultan domination. Sultan depended up on slave labour to be used in clove and coconut plantations. Zanzibar slave market closed in 1873 hence Sultan grew weaker.
2. Anglo-Germany treaty of 1890 led to the fall of the Oman rule in Zanzibar. The treaty gave coastal towns to the Germans; Zanzibar was also made a British protectorate hence all powers rested to the hands of British and not Oman Arabs.
3. Oman rule was opposed by the Swahilis in Pare and Kilwa. This situation deprived the Sultan the bas for powers to govern the coast
4. The Zanzibar revolution of 12th January, 1964 was the final blow of the Sultan Jamshid Abdullah bin Khalifa. Abeid Aman Karume led the Africans in the revolution against Sultan government. From the, the Oman Sultanate imposed in Zanzibar Ended.
IMPACTS OF OMAN ARABS (SULTAN) DOMINATION IN EAST AFRICA
Oman Arabs rule which started with the Marzui at Mombasa and followed by Sultan Sayyid Said in Zanzibar had social and economic effects at the coast along the Indian Ocean and the interior of East Africa as shown below:
A: ECONOMIC IMPACTS
1. Expansion of slave trade and ivory between the coast and interior Africa
2. Land alienation. African land were taken for establishment of clove and coconut plantation
3. East African people were exposed to international trade.
4. Establishment of feudalism where African become serfs and tenants
5. Exploitation of African resources like land, minerals, raw materials, water, and ivory.
6. Introduction of cloves and coconuts plantations. Plantations of cloves led to the loss of land that belonged to the Hadimu, Tumbatu and the people of Pemba.
B: SOCIAL IMPACTS
1. Death due to resistance against the Arabs
2. Spread of Swahili language due to addition of more Arabic words into Swahili language.
3. Spread of Islamic religion and Islamic culture.
4. The suffering of people due to slavery activities.
5. The people of the Coast lost their freedom in the beginning when the Marzui ruled many parts of the coast from Mombasa. They overthrew leaders of the Mombasa local Swahili known as Thalatha Taifa and Tisa Taifa.
6. Intermarriage between the Arabs and the Swahili. This situation led to the emergence of a group of people with mixed blood.
B: TRANS- ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE (TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE)
The triangular trade or intercontinental trade was the trading activities which were conducted across the Atlantic Ocean Involving Western Europe, Africa and America or the New World Africans. It is also termed as the West Africa Slave trade.
This trade mainly took place from the 15th up to 19th centuries during the period of mercantilism in Europe.
The Trans – Atlantic triangular trade developed as the result of European advancement in marine time technology and mercantilism (mercantile capitalism) in Europe.
Around 1400 and 1600 there was European explorer known as Christopher Columbus who discovered American (New World) 1492. New World “means recently land untouched“.
The Portuguese were the first foreigners to capture slaves at the coast of West Africa. In 1441, Anta’o Goncalves the first Portuguese who captured men and women and sent them as gifts to the King of Portugal (Prince Henry the Navigator)
In the 17th century about 27,000 slaves were recruited. By 18th century number raised to 135,000 per annum. Most of slaves were taken from Ghana, Cameroon, Angola and Congo.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade went on for about four centuries without being checked and this had great effects to Africa.
COMMODITIES OF EXCHANGE DURING TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADE
Exported slaves, gold, ivories, and palm oil and animal skins.
Exported sugar, cotton, Tobacco, Gold and Silver.
(Portugal, Britain, Spain, Denmark, Holland and France) – Supplied manufactured goods such as clothes, gun powder, glass were, sugar and tobacco.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCED THE TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
1. The discovery of new world. After discovery of the new world by Christopher Columbus in 1492 Britain colonized modern days united state of America (USA), the French occupied Canada, Portugal colonized Brazil and Spain colonized Latin America.
The Europeans found the natives (Red Indians) unfit for labor in the mines and plantations because they were weak and affected by small pocks and lived nomadic life. Hence the solution was to come to Africa
2. Advancement in marine technology between 15th and 17th century. Europeans nations developed marine technology as they had ships which could carry bulk cargo for a long distance.
3. Trade in gold from West Africa. The trade in gold at the time of the long distance Trans-Saharan trade stimulated slave labour. Slave labour was used to transport gold from the interior of West Africa to the coast of West.
4. Settlement of Portuguese in Sao’ Tome’ and principal islands where they opened sugar plantations, hence required slaves labours
5. Availability of raw materials needed by European merchants encouraged the development of the trade. Raw materials such as ivory, gold, animal skins and palm oil.
6. Rise of interest of local rulers across the Atlantic Ocean. Example of such rulers was a Glele or Badohou of Dahomey used to get tax from exported and imported goods.
7. Accessibility between the new world and the West African coast. The distance from East. Africa to the new world is very narrow bridges with Atlantic Ocean, thus easy transportation of slaves from Africa.
RESULTS OF TRANS – ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
1. Fear and insecurity. There was no peace as many people were captured as slaves from several weak societies.
2. The rise of mullatos. There people who were born as the result of intermarriage between the Africans and the European merchants.
3. Inter tribal wars. Slave trade brought war due to frequent raiding and capturing of people.
4. Depopulation. The number of people decreased in the societies which lost their members as slaves.
5. They opened up the interior of African where they search was around.
6. They facilitate destruction of African culture. The whites introduced their own culture and despised African culture.
1. The fall of some states. During Trans- Saharan trade many states like Ghana, Mali and Songai grew up but during the Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade those states could not get wealth from trade routes hence collapsed.
2. The rise and development of states in the forest region and in East and Central Africa. For example Benin and Oyo developed. They exchanged slaves for clothes, guns and beads.
1. Decline of production; this led people not to engage in production especially in agriculture and mining activities due to slave trade.
2. Decline of local industries. Many people preferred imported goods that were exchanged for slaves, hence technological stagnation.
3. Introduction of new crops example bananas, beans, cassava, and maize.
4. Emergency of local wealth classes; African local rulers participated in slave trade they become rich example Asantehene of Asante.
5. Integration of Africa into the world capitalist economy hence led to colonization of African continent.
6. Introduction of legitimate trade after abolition of slave trade; this was trade in natural products example rubber, cotton, palm oil and grand nuts.
7. African lost its wealth, resources and wildlife. Many elephants were killed to obtain ivory and raw materials were lost to European at very cheap cost. Hence slave trade enriched European massively.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SLAVE TRADE ON VICTIMS
1. Splitting of families and societies. As slaves were taken from amongst members of the family, many families lost their loved ones and they would never see them again
2. Fear and insecurity. Raiding and ambushing of societies to get slaves brought fear and insecurity in families and societies
3. Humiliation. African slaves humiliated by being beaten, tortured and castrated.
4. Depression. Slave suffered depression due to separation from their loved ones
5. Death. Many slaves died on their way to the coast or in the ship to other places.
6. Loss of freedom. Slaves lost their freedom and became tools of labour with no rights in the eyes of their masters
REVISION EXERCISE 4
1. What are the reasons for the expansion of slave trade in the Indian Ocean sea board form the 18th century?
2. Explain the techniques used to get slaves
3. What were the social and economic impacts of slave trade on Africa?
4. Asses the psychological effects of slavery on its victims
5. What were the origins of trans-Saharan slave trade?
6. What were the impacts of the trans- Atlantic slave trade on Africa?